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Ocean Food Web-3/11/11

Adaptations Presentation-7/11/11

Beneficial & Harmful Effects of Microorganisms-9/11/11
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Cells, Tissues, Organs and Systems
1. Explain the relationship between cells, tissues, organs and systems.
Cells are the structural and functional units of all living organisms. When similar cells join together, they form tissues. Tissues working together form organs. Several organs work together to carry out a specific life function. A group of organs that work together to do a specific job is called an organ system.
2. State, with examples that organs are a group of tissues that coordinate to do a specific job.
Heart-Pumps blood around the body.
Lungs-Transport oxygen into the bloodstream, and release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere.
Stomach-Breaks down and transports food into the body.
Kidneys-Removes waste from the blood and eliminates it in the urine.
3. Identify a variety of organ systems in animals and recall that they are made up of different organs with a special purpose working together.
-Respiratory system-Takes in oxygen and removes carbon dioxide and water. The organs which make up the respiratory system include the nose, mouth, lungs & windpipe.
-Digestive system-Breaks down food and absorbs them into the circulatory system. The organs which make up the digestive system include the mouth, food pipe, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver and pancreas.
-Cardiovascular system-Transports nutrients, gases & chemical wastes. The organs which make up the cardiovasculasystem include the heart, blood & vessels.
-Nervous system-Coordinates body actions & monitors the environment. Organs which make up the nervous system include the brain & nerves.
Cells, tissues, organs and systems all have a relationship. When similar cells join together, they form tissues. Tissues working together form organs. Several organs work together to carry out a specific life function. A group of organs that work together to do a specific job is called an organ system.
Organs are a group of tissues that coordinate to do a specific job. For example, the heart's main job is to pump blood around the body and the lungs transport oxygen into the bloodstream, and release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere.
Organ systems are made up of different organs with a special purpose working together. For example, the respiratory system takes in oxygen and removes carbon dioxide and water. Organs which make up the respiratory system include the nose, mouth, lungs & windpipe
Terminology List
Respiratory- takes in oxygen & removes carbon dioxide & water
-trachea, bronchioles, lungs, mouth
Endocrine- secretes hormones that control bodily functions
-pituitary gland, adrenal glands, thymus gland, thyroid gland, ovary, testes
Digestive- breaksdown foodstuffs & absorbs them into the circulatory system
-esophagus, stomach, intestines
Lymphatic- contains nodes that may inflame and indicate the presence of infection
-drains fluid from around cells to eliminate swelling
-nodes, tonsils, spleen
Muscular-Maintains the body's heat and posture
-Moves bones & protects organs
Nervous-coordinates body actions & monitors the environment
-brain, nerves
Cardiovascular- transports nutrients, gases & chemical wastes
-heart, blood vessels
Integumentary- first line of defense against infection; maintains body temperature
-skin, hair & nails
Reproductive- produce offspring to maintain the species
-uterus, fallopian tubes, testes, vas deferens
Urinary- removes liquid waste from the body
-ureters, urethra, bladder
Skeletal- provides support & protection
-cartilage, bones, joints

Respiratory System6. Label a diagram of the respiratory system (trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli). Respiratory_System.png


7. Explain how air enters and exits the lungs.
Air enters when the diaphragm is lowered due to the movement of muscles. The lower pressure in the chest cavity causes air from the outside to rush into the lungs.
Inhalation (breathing in)
1. As the diaphragm contracts, it flattens and moves down.
2. The external intercostal muscles contract which lifts the ribs upwards and outwards.
3. The resulting increase in the volume of the thorax causes a decrease in the air pressure and fresh air is drawn into the lungs.

Exhalation (breathing out)
1. The diaphragm relaxes and moves upwards.
2. The intercostal muscles relax and the ribcage drops downwards and inwards.
3. This results in a decrease in the volume of the thorax and the air in the lungs is pushed out.

8. Describe the process that occurs inside an alveolus.
When air goes into the alveolus, there is an exchange in gases between the alveolus and the blood in the capillaries surrounding the alveolus. Oxygen moves by diffusion from the alveolus into the blood and carbon dioxide moves from the capillaries into the alveolus to be breathed out through the nose.
Detailed Description:
An alveolus is full of air. There are many small blood vessels called capillaries that run over the surface of the alveoli. The walls of the alveoli and the walls of the capillaries are very thin. Oxygen passes through these walls from the alveolus into the blood. Carbon dioxide goes in the opposite direction. This is an example of diffusion. When a substance diffuses across a membrane, it moves in the direction that will even out the concentration on both sides of the membrane. In the lungs, the concentration of oxygen is higher inside the alveoli than in the blood so oxygen diffuses out of the alveoli and into the blood inside the capillaries. The concentration of carbon dioxide is greater in the capillaries than in the alveoli, so carbon dioxide moves out of the bloodstream and into the alveoli so that it can be breathed out. (Description from Jacplus Textbook)

Cellular Respiration

4. Recall the word equation for respiration.
Oxygen +Glucose --> Energy +Carbon Dioxide + Water
Notes on Cellular Respiration
  • Living organisms rely on a process, called cellular respiration, to run smoothly so that we will have the energy needed to exert ourselves or just relax.
  • In cellular respiration, plants, animals, and all other living organisms harvest energy by breaking down energy-rich molecules.
  • As energy is released by the reactions of cellular respiration, cells capture and store the energy in the bonds of ATP molecules, the chief energy currency of the cell.
  • This plentiful, readily available stored energy in ATP can then be used as needed to fuel the activities of the organism.
  • Cellular respiration requires oxygen, which the animal inhales, and releases carbon dioxide, which the animal exhales. Water is also released during these reactions.
  • Equation for cellular respiration is Oxygen + Glucose --> Energy + Carbon Dioxide + Water

25/7/11 - Respiratory System Video-How air enters and exits the lungs

25/7/11 - Respiratory System Video-Process that occurs inside an alveolus

Circulatory System

9. State the function of each of the following components of the circulatory system: arteries, veins, capillaries, heart, blood.
-Arteries: Arteries have thick, elastic muscular walls and carry blood under high pressure away from the heart.
-Veins: Veins have thin walls and valves that prevent the blood from flowing backwards. Veins carry blood to the heart from the rest of the body.
Capillaries: Capillaries are the most numerous and smallest blood vessels. They carry materials such as oxygen and nutrients to the cells and remove wastes including carbon dioxide.
-Heart: The biological pump that circulates the blood around the body. The heart is a strong muscular organ that acts as a pump for the circulatory system.
-Blood: The blood carries nutrients such as glucose &wastes such as carbon dioxide. It helps to fight disease and to clot when there is a cut so the cut is sealed.

10. Describe the function of the main components of blood (plasma, red and white blood cells and platelets).
- Plasma: Plasma is a straw-coloured liquid which mostly consists of water & nutrients such as glucose and waste products such as carbon dioxide are carried around the body in the plasma.
-Red Blood Cells: The job of red blood cells is to carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body.
-White Blood Cells: White blood cells are large and have a nucleus. They have an irregular shape and are not rigid so they can squeeze into the small blood vessels. They fight disease and engulf germs while others produce chemicals called antibodies that attack germs.
- Platelets: Platelets help blood to clot if a blood vessel is cut. This seals up the cut so that germs cannot get in.

As the heart pumps, the arteries carry oxygen-rich blood away from the heart and toward the body’s tissues and vital organs. These include the brain, liver, kidneys, stomach, and muscles, including the heart muscle itself. At the same time, the veins carry oxygen-poor blood from the tissues back toward the heart. From there, it passes to the lungs to receive more oxygen. This cycle repeats itself when oxygen-rich blood returns to the heart from the lungs, which pumps it throughout the body.

Technology and the Circulatory System11. Give examples of life saving technology that have arisen as a result of improved understanding of the circulatory system (artificial heart valves ECG and artificial blood).
Artificial Heart

The artificial heart is a mechanical device which can be made out of titanium and plastic. Surgeons implant a small electronic device in the abdominal wall to monitor and control the pumping speed of the heart. An external battery is strapped around the waist and can supply about 4–5 hours of power. An internal rechargeable battery is also implanted inside the wearer's abdomen. This is so they can be disconnected from the main battery for about 30–40 minutes for activities such as showering.

Artificial Blood

Scientists have not quite succeeded in making an ideal replacement for blood but a number of teams of scientists around the world are working on it. The perfect blood replacement would be a product that has a long shelf life, does not need to be refrigerated, does not need to match the patient's blood type and is guaranteed to be free of disease-causing germs. Hemopure, a type of artificial blood has been approved to treat some cases of severe anaemia in South African hospitals. Hemopure is made from haemoglobin obtained either from blood that has passed its use-by date or from animal blood. The haemoglobin is wrapped in certain chemicals so that it behaves a lot like red blood cells do and can carry oxygen around the body.

Artificial Heart Valves
The heart depends on a series of valves to function correctly as these valves open and close to receive and discharge blood to and from the various chambers of the heart. They stop the blood from flowing backwards so if any of the four valves become faulty, the function the heart will be impaired. We are now able to replace faulty heart valves with artificial ones. Replacing the valves in the heart requires open heart surgery. The patient may also need to take medicine to prevent their blood from forming clots as it flows through the artificial valve. There are two types of artificial heart valves: mechanical valves and biological valves. Mechanical heart valves are designed to replicate the function of normal heart valves. Modern mechanical heart valves can last for a long time but they require lifelong treatment and care. Biological heart valves are made of tissues and they have the benefit of improved blood flow and a reduced risk of clots forming so they do not require lifelong treatment. The disadvantage of these valves is that they last only about 15 years before they need replacing.
Blabber Video-Life Saving Technology

Digestive System12. Outline the function of the following nutrients in keeping the body healthy: carbohydrates, proteins, fats and oils.
Food Group
Bread, Pasta & Potatoes.
Starch in carbohydrates turns sugars into glucose which then inturn provides an immediate source of energy for the body.
Eggs, milk, meat & fish.
Used for growth and to repair body tissues.
Fats and Oils
Butter & oil
For insulation, structural use and as a source of energy.
13. Label a diagram of the digestive system
Terminology List
Anus - the opening at the end of the digestive system from which faeces exit the body.
Appendix - a small sac located near the start of the large intestine.
Oesophagus - the long tube between the mouth and the stomach. It uses rhythmic muscle movements (called peristalsis) to force food from the throat into the stomach.
Gallbladder - a small, sac-like organ located by the duodenum. It stores and releases bile (a digestive chemical which is produced in the liver) into the small intestine.
Large intestine - the long, wide tube that food goes through after it goes through the small intestine.
Liver - a large organ located above and in front of the stomach. It filters toxins from the blood, and makes bile (which breaks down fats) and some blood proteins.
Mouth - the first part of the digestive system, where food enters the body. Chewing and salivary enzymes in the mouth are the beginning of the digestive process (breaking down the food).
Pancreas - an enzyme-producing gland located below the stomach and above the intestines. Enzymes from the pancreas help in the digestion of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in the small intestine.
Rectum - the lower part of the large intestine, where faeces are stored before they are excreted from the body.
Small intestine - the long, thin winding tube that food goes through after it leaves the stomach.
Stomach - a sack-like, muscular organ that is attached to the oesophagus. When food enters the stomach, it is churned in an acid bath.

14. Outline the function of the organs of the digestive system.
The digestive system consists of the parts of the body, working together, that help turn food and liquids into the building blocks and fuel the body needs.

Structures of the Digestive System
The mouth is where the digestive tract begins. Enzymes released into the mouth start the process of digestion.
Because both food and air move through it, the pharynx is part of both the digestive and respiratory system.
The epiglottis is the small piece of tissue that covers the opening to the larynx and trachea to keep food and liquid out of the lungs when you swallow.
The oesophagus is a soft, muscular tube that moves food from the pharynx to the stomach.
The liver performs many tasks, including storing energy and helping the body get rid of toxins (poisons.)
The gallbladder is a small pouch that stores bile. The gallbladder releases bile into the duodenum to help digest fats in the food you eat.
The stomach as a lining that’s tough enough to hold up in the highly acidic environment needed to break down food.
The pancreas make hormones (including insulin) to regulate the blood glucose level. It also makes enzymes to break down the food in the intestines.
Large intestine
The large intestine consists of three parts- the cecum, colon and rectum.
The anus marks the exit point of the digestive tract where faeces leave the body.
Small intestine
The small intestine is called small because of its width. It’s actually much longer than the large intestine. The small intestine consists of three parts- the duodenum, jejunum and ileum.
The appendix is attached to the cecum. When it becomes inflamed, it’s called appendicitis.

Excretory System16. Describe the function of the excretory system.The excretory system is the system that rids the body of all its wastes, and involves the lungs to remove carbon dioxide from the body, the large intestine in which solid wastes pass through, and the kidneys which remove the bulk of the liquid waste. 17. Label the urinary system.
excretory_system_diagram.JPGExcretory_system_2.jpg18. Recall the function of the following parts of the urinary system: kidney, bladder, ureters, urethra.
Kidneys- The two bean-shaped kidneys constantly filter blood to produce urine.
Ureters-A ureter is a thin tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder. You have two ureters, one for each kidney.
Bladder-This is a sac in the lower part of your belly. It stores urine until its released out through the body.
Urethra-is the tube that carries urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body.

Excretory System-Glog

Skeletal System15. Recall the 3 main functions of the skeletal system. The three main functions of the skeletal system include:
  • Provide support for the rest of the body
  • Provide protection for internal organs such as the heart, brain and lungs
  • Provide a place of attachment for muscles so movement can be achieved
  • There are 206 bones in the skeleton of an adult human.
  • Apart from providing a rigid structure for muscles to attach to, thus allowing you to move, the skeleton also has two other important functions. The skeleton provides support and forms a frame that gives your body its basic shape. Without a skeleton, you would be a jelly-like blob.
  • The five main functions of the skeletal system are to give our body shape, protection, movement, storage and production.
  • Our bones protect the vital organs that keep us alive. For example the ribcage protects the heart and lungs, the skull protects the brain and the vertebrate protect the spinal cord.
  • Our skeleton helps us move as the bones provide an attachment for muscles to hang onto and the muscles and bones work together to create movement.
  • The skeleton stores minerals and the bone tissues store calcium and phosphorus to keep them strong. The bones release these minerals into the blood so that there is a balance of minerals throughout the body.
  • There are five types of bones: Long bones which include fingers, short bones which include ankles, flat bones like the skull, irregular bones such as the spine or hip and sesamoid bones which are found in the hand, knee and foot. Other types of bone include compact or hard bone and spongy or cancellous bone.
  • Bones are made out of calcium + phosphorus + sodium + collagen.

  • A joint is where two bones meet. The elbow and knee are examples of joints.
  • At a joint the bones are held together by bundles of strong fibres called ligaments.
  • The ends of each bone are covered with cartilage which protects the bones from jarring or scraping.
  • The cartilage is covered with a liquid called synovial fluid which fills the joint cavity.
  • The knee and elbow are hinge joints, like those in a door. They allow movement in only one direction.
  • The hip and shoulder joints are ball and socket joints. They allow movement in many directions.
  • The joint between your skull and spine is a pivot joint. It allows a twisting type of movement.
  • Some joints, such as those that join the plates of your skull, do not move. Such joints are called immovable joints.
  • While not allowing movement, these joints provide a thin layer of soft tissue between bones. Their job is to absorb enough energy from a severe knock to prevent the bone from breaking.
  • A bone breaks when too much pressure is applied upon it causing it to bend or snap.

Three Types of Joints

19. Outline the contributions made by one of the following Australian to the field of medicine: Victor Chang, Fiona Wood, Barry Marshall.
Victor Chang
Dr Victor Chang was the doctor to see in the 1980's for a heart or lung transplant. He was an Australian doctor who was awarded a Companion of the Order of Australia for his contribution to medicine. Victor established the heart transplant unit at St Vincent's Hospital in Sydney and he set up a team of 40 health professionals. They developed new procedures and techniques which led to an improved success rate in heart and lung transplants. Of his patients, 92 per cent were still alive one year after their heart or lung transplant operation and 85 per cent were still alive five years later. Dr Victor Chang also developed an artificial heart valve which he named the St Vincent heart valve and was also working on developing an artificial heart. Victor Chang was tragically murdered in 1991 by a gunshot, but many people owe their lives to his work. Dr Victor Chang has made a significant contribution to the Australian field of medicine.

Dr Victor Chang


20. Describe some careers in the area of health Science.‍‍‍‍‍‍


A dietician is one of the many health careers in science. The main job of a dietician is to educate others about the types of foods that should be consuming by explaining complex scientific information about nutrition in a way which is easy to understand. Patients who are referred to dieticians usually have been diagnosed with diet-related diseases such as diabetes, coeliac disease, heart disease and certain types of cancers. The dietician will advise them on the types of foods they should be eating because particular medical conditions will require patients to follow a strict and specific diet in order to remain healthy. Many dieticians undertake research, some work in hospitals but others may have their own practice which is an office where patients can go to see them. Some examples of dieticians include, dieticians which work for the government or large companies which manufacture food and sport dieticians which work with athletes. All dieticians must have an extensive knowledge of food and the body. They also should have good communication skills and the ability to work cooperately with patients. All dieticians must have a university degree and they may also need a degree in science before they can decide to focus on nutrition. A dietician is one of the careers in the health area of science which requires many skills and hard work.

Medical Pathologists

Medical Pathologists are scientists who study disease and prepare tests to determine the cause of a disease. A pathologist organises technicians to run tests on a blood sample and prepare a report on the results of the test. Pathologists also test tissue samples and do after death (post-mortem) examinations to determine the cause of a death if it is unknown. The pathologist examines and tests the organs to determine the actual cause of the death. Forensic pathologists collect evidence that may lead to the conviction of criminals. A medical pathologist is another career in the area of health Science which involves lots of research and study.