1. Explain the relationship between cells, tissues , organs and systems:
A cell is a single unit of organisms. When many cells form together, tissues are formed. When tissues come ogether, organs are formed. Then when organswork with each other a system is formed.

2. State, with examples that organs are a group of tissues that coordinate to do a specific job:

Within an organism their are many organs (eg. lungs, stomach, heart, brain, Large Intestine, Ovaries and muscles), which contain tissues, which work together to allow human bodies to function. Some of these functions include breathing, digesting, circulating blood to the rest of the body, control and brotect your body, remove wastes from you body, reproduce and strenghten your body.
Each organ of your body belongs to a system that allows your body to do specific jobs. These systems are known as the respiratory system, digestive system, circuilatory system, nervous system, excretory system, Reproductive system and skeleto-muscalar system.
3. Identify a variety of organ systems in animals and recall that they are made up of different organs with a special purpose working together.

How it works with other systems
    • Mouth
    • Food pipe (Oesophagus)
    • Stomach
    • Small Intestine
    • Large Intestine
    • Pancreas
    • Liver
Mouth Function: The physical process of chewing and the chemicals in our Saliva cause the surface area of our food to increase and begin to break down our food.
Oesophagus Function: The partially digested food travels from the mouth to the stomach through the Oesophagus.
Stomach Function: The function of the stomach is to store food, break food down and mix it with fluids exiting via your stomach lining.
Small Intestine Function: The function of the Small Intestine is a Chemical digestion of food and absorption of nutrients into your blood.
Large Intestine Function: The function of the Large Intestine is to convert food waste products into faeces.
Pancreas Function: The function of the Pancreas is to control Blood and sugar levels throughout the body. The Pancreas also provides chemicals to the opening of the Large Intestine and the bottom of the Oesophagus
Liver Function: The Function of the Liver is to Store urine. The Liver also provides chemicals for the opening of the Large Intestine and the bottom of the Oesophagus.
The digestive system works together to provide our body with nutrients through food that out tissues need to function. The digestive system works together through the process oxidation, in which the surface area of food is increased and allows Energy, Fluids and Carbon Dioxide to spread through our bodies and for us to survive.
    • Heart
    • Blood vessels
Heart Function: The function of the heart is to pump oxygen rich blood throughout your body and oxygen poor blood to your lungs.
Blood vessels Function: Blood Vessels are hollow tubes that circulate blood throughout your body.
The circulatory system is a complex network of veins and arteries that transport blood around the body. The heart us the central part of this system as it is the pump that moves the blood. The blood vessels are named according to the direction in which they carry blood. Arteries carry blood away from the heart to the rest of the body. Veins carry blood from the rest of the body to the heart.
    • Kidney
    • Lungs
    • Liver
    • Skin
    • Large Intestine
Kidney Function: To make urine from waste products and excess water found in your blood.
Lungs Function: To remove Carbon Dioxide from the body
Liver Function: To get rid of toxins, to regulate your blood sugar levels and to produce bile
Skin Function: To protect your body from damage, infection and drying out. To remove fluids such as sweat and oil.
Large Intestine: To convert food waste products into faeces.
The excretory system works together to remove any unwanted products from the body. The Excretory system's organs remove water, Carbon Dioxide and faeces from your body.
    • Lungs
    • Nose and mouth
    • Windpipe
Lung Function:The lungs are the main organs of the respiratory system. In the lungs oxygen is taken into the body and carbon dioxide is breathed out.
Nose and Mouth Function: The nose filters the air as it enters into the body from dust and warms air if it is too cold.
Trachea function:The trachea filters the air we breathe and branches into the bronchi.
Your respiratory system is made up of the organs in your body that help you to breathe. Remember, that Respiration = Breathing. The goal of breathing is to deliver oxygen to the body and to take away carbon dioxide.
    • Ovaries
    • Testies
Ovaries function:The ovaries are two oval-shaped organs that lie to the upper right and left of the uterus. They produce, store, and release eggs into the fallopian tubes in the process called ovulation.
Testies function: produce and store millions of tiny sperm cells
The reproductive system includes the organs that work together for the purpose of reproduction. The system includes internal and external organs as well as fluids, hormones and pheromones.
Skeleto-muscular System
    • Muscles
    • Bones
Bone function: To maintain body shape, to give us movement, to store nutrients that our blood will need, to protect your organs, to produce red and white blood cells.
Muscle function: To produce movement and maintain posture.
The Skeletomuscular System is the system which makes up the skeleton and muscles which allows the organism to move. It is the foundation of the body, and provides strength and structure to the body. Without it, the body would be frail and would be unable to move. It gives the body shape and size for vertebrates.

Make a terminology list in your wiki using the words that you have learned from the two quia quizzes:

Terminology List:

respiratory system
takes in oxygen and removes carbon dioxide and water
seretes hormones that control bodily functions
breaks down and absorbs them into the circuilatory system
contains nodes that may inflame and andicate the presence of infection
maintains the body's heat and posture
coordinates body actions and monitors the environment
transports nutrient, gasses and chemical wastes
first line of defence against infection; maintains body temperature
removes liquid waste from he body
provides support and protection
chop and grind
changes starch to sugar, adds liquid to the foods
mixes the fod with saliva
food tube, pushes food down from he mouth to the stomach
blends, churns mixes food, digestive jucies enter here to break food down
first part of the small intestine where food is broken down further by digestive jucies and enzyme
smal intestine
nutrients are absorbed into the blood stream here
large intestine
bacteria remove nutrients from waste, water is removed from waste
stores solid waste
salivary glands
makes saliva
gall bladder
stores bile and sends it to the small intestine
makes bile, stores nutrients that the body does not need right away
makes chemicals needed to break down food, makes insulin
chemical that breaks down food
helps cells use sugar
yellow-green fluid that breaks down fat
digestive jucies
acids and enzymes in the the stomach that break down food
6. Label a diagram of the respiratory system (trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli).

external image respiratory_system_babies.jpg

7. Explain how air enters and exists the lungs:

8. Describe the process that occurs inside the alveolus

9. Cellular Respiration Summary:

  • The word equation for cellular Respiration is Oxygen + Glucose = Energy + Carbon Dioxide + Water.
  • When we eat or heat food it's potential energy is converted into kinetic energy which organisms use for our body organs to function. The higher the energy content in foods the more energy, that is absorbed into an organisms body.
  • When we inhale the glucose from the food in your digestive tract forms energy which we use in breathing and our hearts beating while Carbon Dioxide and water is breathed out through our nose and mouth.

9. State the function of each of the following components of the circulatory system: arteries, veins, capillaries, heart., blood
10. Describe the function of the main components of blood (plasma, red and white blood cells and platelets).

10. Give examples of life saving technology that have arisen as a result of improved understanding of the circulatory system (artificial heart valves ECG and artificial blood).

Technology in the Circuilatory System:

The three technologies in the Circuilatory System include:
  1. ECG ( Electrodiagram)
  2. Artifical Heart Valve
  3. Artifical Blood

ECG ( Electrodiagram):
An electrocardiogram(ECG) shows the electrical activity of a person's heart. ECG patterns are valuable in diagnosing heart disease or abornamaltes. To produce the ECG, electrodes (flat pieces of metal that are connected to the ECG machine by wires) are stuck to the skin. The machine measures the tiny electrical impulses produced by the heart as it beats.
Artifical Heart Valve:
If any of the four heart valves becomes faulty, the function of the heart may be impared with artifical valved. This requires surgery. The patient may also need to take medicine to prevent their blood from forming clots as it flows through the artifical valve.
Life Saving Incidents with Artifical Heart Valves:
Doctors at the Chaim Sheba Medical Centre have performes a rare and complicated life-saving opean-heart Valve operation on e twelve year old Haitain girl. The doctors discovered Amy Mariolata when she came to a primary care clinic in the wake of Haiti's devastating earthquake in January 2010. She was suffering from rheumatic heart disease, a condition affecting the heart valves, affecting the heart valves, and had a life expectancy of just two years. The doctors brought her to Israel and carried out an eight-hour surgery, which is likely to extend her life by at least 20-30 years.
Artifical Blood:
If you lose a lot of blood, you may need a blood transfustion. The bloos from another person is enjected into your veins to replace the blood you have lost, however if the persons blood that is now in your system is infected, you will also recieve that infection.

Life Saving Incidents with Artifical Blood:
Doctors at The Alfred Hospital brought Tamara Coakley back from the brink after a car crash left her with severe blood loss and close to heart failure. Her spinal cord was almost severed, her lungs collapsed, her skull was fractured, several ribs were broken, as were her cheekbone and an elbow, and her spleen was ruptured. She was barely alive when she arrived at hospital. "I had one litre of blood left in my body," she said. In a last effort to save Ms Coakley's life, artificial blood was flown in from the US. The blood restored her oxygen levels within her body and she had survived.

12. Outline the function of the following nutrients in keeping the body healthy: carbohydrates, proteins, fats and oils.

Food Group
    • Pasta
    • Potato
    • Breads
To fuel your body with energy
    • Milk
    • Eggs
    • meat
Help the body growth and repair
Fats and Oils
    • Butter
    • Animal fats
Keeps you warm as it forms a layer of insulation around tour body and is an important component of the cell membrane.
12. Label a diagramof the digestive system.

external image digestive_system.jpg
13. Outline the function of the organs of the digestive system.

    • The Mouth is where the digestive tract begins.
    • Enzymes released into the mouth start the process of digestion
    • The epiglottis is the small piece of tissue that covers the opening to the larynx and trachea to keep food and liquid out of the lungs when you swallow.
    • The gallbladder is a small pouch that stores bile (liquid). The gallbladder releases bile into the small intestine to help digest fats in the food you eat.
Small Intestine
The Small intestine is called small because of its width, not it's length. It's actually much longer than the large intestine. The small and large intestines form one continuous tube.
  • DUODENUM: The word duodeni is Latin means "12 each." The duodenum, which is part of the small intestine, was though to be about as long as the width of twelve fingers.
  • JEJUNUM: The Jejunum is the middle section of the small intestine is about 1.5 to 2.5 meters long.
  • ILEUM: The ileum is the final section of the small intestine. At 5 to 6 meters, it's also the longest.
    • The Appendix is attached to the cecum. When it gets inflames it's called appendicitis.
    • Because both food and air move through it, the pharynx is part of both the respiratory ans digestive systems
    • The Esophagus is a soft, muscular tube that moves food from the pharynx to the stomach
    • The liver is the body's largest internal organ. The liver performs many tasks, including storing energy and helping the body get rid of toxins (poisons)
    • The stomach has a lining that's tough enough to hold up the highly acidic environment needed to break down food.
    • The pancreas makes hormones (including insulin) to regulate the blood glucose level. It also makes enzymes to break down food in the intestines.
Large Intestine
The Large Intestine consists of three parts - the cecum, colon and rectum.
  • CECUM: The cecum is the pouch like beginning of the large intestine.
  • COLON: The colon is the largest part of the large intestine, and has three parts- the ascending, transverse and descending colon.
  • RECTURN: The return is the final 15 to 20 cm of the large intestine. It stores faeces until they leave the body.
    • The anus marks the exit point of the digestive tract where faeces leave the body

15. Describe the function of the excretory system.
The function of the excretory system is to remove the metabolic wasteof an organism. Wastes that are removed include Carbon Dioxide, water, salt and urea.

16. Label the urinary system.
external image urinary-system-of-man.jpeg

17. Recall the function of the following parts of the urinary system: kidney, bladder, ureters, urethra.

2 Kidneys constantly filter blood to produce urine
2 urters carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
The urinary bladder stores urine until it is released from the body.
Is the tube that carries urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body

15. Recall the 3 main functions of the skeletal system (support, protection of internal organs and providing anchor points for muscles. Note: students are not expected to be able to name the bones of the human body – this is covered in PDHPE:

The Skeletal system's main functions include:
  1. Shape: The skeleton is the framework of the body, supporting all the softer tissues, and gives the musceles something to hold onto.
  2. Protection: The skelteon provides protection for the vital organs that keep you alive. It is similar to a cage.
  3. Movement: Musceles and bones work together to create movement. Bones provide an attachment for Musceles to hold onto.
  4. Storage: Bones store minerals. Bone tissue hold Calcium and Phosphosrs, and release them into your blood when you need it. Bones help to keep the minerals in your body even.
  5. Production: A bone marrow creates red and white blood cells to help prevent diseases