1. Explain the relationship between cells, tissues, organs and systems

The relationship between cells,organs, and systems would be many cells make up tissue, many tissues make up an organ, many organs make up an organ system, and organ systems make up and organism

2. State, with examples that organs are a group of tissues that coordinate to do a specific job.

Their are many organs in an organism such as large intestine, ovaries, muscles, lungs, heart, brain and stomach. All of them which contain tissues, which work together to allow human bodies to function. Every organ thats part of your body, belongs to a system that allows your body to do specific jobs. These systems are known as the respiratory system, digestive system, circuilatory system, nervous system, excretory system, reproductive system and skeleto-muscalar system. Some of these functions include breathing, digesting, circulating blood to the rest of the body, control and protect your body, remove wastes from you body, reproduce and strenghten your body.

4. Recall the word equation for cellular respiration.

Glucose + Oxygen = Energy + Carbon Dioxide + Water

5. Label a diagram of the respiratory system (trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli).

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6. Explain how air enters and exists the lungs.

The lung is a branching system of tubes and air sacs. Air enters the nose and mouth and is directed in the throat to the trachea which carries the air in the chest. The trachea splits into two major bronchi, one for each lung. The bronchi branch into smaller and smaller tubes that end ending in air sacks (alveoli) where the gas exchanges occur. Adult lungs contain about 600 million alveoli, air-filled sacs that are surrounded by capillaries. Oxygen in the inhaled air enters the capillaries in alveoli and attaches to hemoglobin molecules. At the same time, carbon dioxide leaves the capillaries and enters the alveoli. The carbon dioxide leaves the lungs when you exhale.

7. Describe the process that occurs inside an alveolus.

The Respiratory System is crucial to every human being. Without it, we would cease to live outside of the womb. Let us begin by taking a look at the structure of the respiratory system and how vital it is to life. During inhalation or exhalation air is pulled towards or away from the lungs, by several cavities, tubes, and openings.

The organs of the respiratory system make sure that oxygen enters our bodies and carbon dioxide leaves our bodies.

The respiratory tract is the path of air from the nose to the lungs. It is divided into two sections: Upper Respiratory Tract and the Lower Respiratory Tract. Included in the upper respiratory tract are the Nostrils, Nasal Cavities, Pharynx, Epiglottis, and the Larynx. The lower respiratory tract consists of the Trachea, Bronchi, Bronchioles, and the Lungs.

As air moves along the respiratory tract it is warmed, moistened and filtered.

8. State the function of each of the following components of the circulatory system: arteries, veins, capillaries, heart., blood.

ARTERIES:Carry blood under high pressure away from the heart

VEINS: Prevent the blood from flowing backwards.

CAPILLARIES: Carry materials such as oxygen and nutrients to the cells and remove wastes including carbon dioxide.

HEART: Muscular ogran that pumps blood around the body

BLOOD: Carry nutrients such as glucose and some waste products and oxygen.

9. Describe the function of the main components of blood (plasma, red and white blood cells and platelets).

Plasma : liquid part of blood which consits of mostly water, many substances dissolve in the plasma

Red blood cells : carry oxygen around the body

White blood cells : fight diseases and seals up cuts so germs wont get in

Platelets : to clot when there is a cut so the cut is sealed

10. Give examples of life saving technology that have arisen as a result of improved understanding of the circulatory system (artificial heart valves ECG and artificial blood).

11. Outline the function of the following nutrients in keeping the body healthy: carbohydrates, proteins, fats and oils.

Carbohydrates are the body's prime energy source. They help in the proper function of the brain as well as the body's muscles by transforming sugar into the energy your body truly needs. To learn more about carbohydrates, take time to know the difference between the two types of carbohydrates: the simple and the complex carbohydrates.
Proteins are large, complex molecules that play many critical roles in the body. They do most of the work in cells and are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body’s tissues and organs.

Fats are composed of the same three elements as carbohydrates—carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. However, they are much poorer in oxygen and richer in carbon and hydrogen than are carbohydrates. Because of this higher carbon and hydrogen content, fats have a greater heat or energy equivalent than carbohydrates.

12. Label a diagram of the digestive system.

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13. Outline the function of the organs of the digestive system.


The mouth is the beginning of the digestive tract; and, in fact, digestion starts here when taking the first bite of food. Chewing breaks the food into pieces that are more easily digested, while saliva mixes with food to begin the process of breaking it down into a form your body can absorb and use.


Located in your throat near your trachea (windpipe), the esophagus receives food from your mouth when you swallow. By means of a series of muscular contractions called peristalsis, the esophagus delivers food to your stomach.


The stomach is a hollow organ, or "container," that holds food while it is being mixed with enzymes that continue the process of breaking down food into a usable form. Cells in the lining of the stomach secrete a strong acid and powerful enzymes that are responsible for the breakdown process. When the contents of the stomach are sufficiently processed, they are released into the small intestine.

Small intestine

Made up of three segments — the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum — the small intestine is a 22-foot long muscular tube that breaks down food using enzymes released by the pancreas and bile from the liver. Peristalsis also is at work in this organ, moving food through and mixing it with digestive secretions from the pancreas and liver. The duodenum is largely responsible for the continuous breaking-down process, with the jejunum and ileum mainly responsible for absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream.

Contents of the small intestine start out semi-solid, and end in a liquid form after passing through the organ. Water, bile, enzymes, and mucous contribute to the change in consistency. Once the nutrients have been absorbed and the leftover-food residue liquid has passed through the small intestine, it then moves on to the large intestine, or colon.


The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum, the first segment of the small intestine. These enzymes break down protein, fats, and carbohydrates. The pancreas also makes insulin, secreting it directly into the bloodstream. Insulin is the chief hormone for metabolizing sugar.


The liver has multiple functions, but its main function within the digestive system is to process the nutrients absorbed from the small intestine. Bile from the liver secreted into the small intestine also plays an important role in digesting fat. In addition, the liver is the body’s chemical "factory." It takes the raw materials absorbed by the intestine and makes all the various chemicals the body needs to function. The liver also detoxifies potentially harmful chemicals. It breaks down and secretes many drugs.


The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile, and then releases it into the duodenum to help absorb and digest fats.

Colon (large intestine)

The colon is a 6-foot long muscular tube that connects the small intestine to the rectum. The large intestine is made up of the cecum, the ascending (right) colon, the transverse (across) colon, the descending (left) colon, and the sigmoid colon, which connects to the rectum. The appendix is a small tube attached to the cecum. The large intestine is a highly specialized organ that is responsible for processing waste so that emptying the bowels is easy and convenient.

Stool, or waste left over from the digestive process, is passed through the colon by means of peristalsis, first in a liquid state and ultimately in a solid form. As stool passes through the colon, water is removed. Stool is stored in the sigmoid (S-shaped) colon until a "mass movement" empties it into the rectum once or twice a day. It normally takes about 36 hours for stool to get through the colon. The stool itself is mostly food debris and bacteria. These bacteria perform several useful functions, such as synthesizing various vitamins, processing waste products and food particles, and protecting against harmful bacteria. When the descending colon becomes full of stool, or feces, it empties its contents into the rectum to begin the process of elimination.


The rectum (Latin for "straight") is an 8-inch chamber that connects the colon to the anus. It is the rectum's job to receive stool from the colon, to let the person know that there is stool to be evacuated, and to hold the stool until evacuation happens. When anything (gas or stool) comes into the rectum, sensors send a message to the brain. The brain then decides if the rectal contents can be released or not. If they can, the sphincters relax and the rectum contracts, disposing its contents. If the contents cannot be disposed, the sphincter contracts and the rectum accommodates so that the sensation temporarily goes away.


The anus is the last part of the digestive tract. It is a 2-inch long canal consisting of the pelvic floor muscles and the two anal sphincters (internal and external). The lining of the upper anus is specialized to detect rectal contents. It lets you know whether the contents are liquid, gas, or solid. The anus is surrounded by sphincter muscles that are important in allowing control of stool. The pelvic floor muscle creates an angle between the rectum and the anus that stops stool from coming out when it is not supposed to. The internal sphincter is always tight, except when stool enters the rectum. It keeps us continent when we are asleep or otherwise unaware of the presence of stool. When we get an urge to go to the bathroom, we rely on our external sphincter to hold the stool until reaching a toilet, where it then relaxes to release the contents.

14. Recall the 3 main functions of the skeletal system (support, protection of internal organs and providing anchor points for muscles.Note: students are not expected to be able to name the bones of the human body – this is covered in PDHPE

1. Support
The skeleton is the framework of the body, it supports the softer tissues and provides points of attachment for most skeletal muscles.

2. Protection
The skeleton provides mechanical protection for many of the body's internal organs, reducing risk of injury to them.
For example, cranial bones protect the brain, vertebrae protect the spinal cord, and the ribcage protects the heart and lungs.

3. Assisting in Movement
Skeletal muscles are attached to bones, therefore when the associated muscles contract they cause bones to move.

15. Describe the function of the excretory system.

The human excretory system functions to remove waste from the human body. This system consists of specialized structures and capillary networks that assist in the excretory process. The human excretory system includes the kidney and its functional unit, the nephron. The excretory activity of the kidney is modulated by specialized hormones that regulate the amount of absorption within the nephron.

16. Label the urinary system. (diagram)

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17. Recall the function of the following parts of the urinary system: kidney, bladder, ureters, urethra.

Kidney -

­­Your kidneys receive the blood from the renal artery, process it, return the processed blood to the body through the renal vein and­ remove the wastes and other unwanted substances in the urine. Urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the bladder. In the bladder, the urine is stored until it is excreted from the body through the urethra.

Bladder -

The bladder's main function is to store and release urine. Nerves in the bladder tell you when it is time to urinate (empty your bladder). As the bladder first fills with urine, you may notice a feeling that you need to urinate. The sensation to urinate becomes stronger as the bladder continues to fill and reaches its limit. At that point, nerves from the bladder send a message to the brain that the bladder is full, and your urge to empty your bladder intensifies.When you urinate, the brain signals the bladder muscles to tighten, squeezing urine out of the bladder.

Ureters - There are two ureters, one leading from each kidney to the urinary bladder. Each of these transports urine from the renal pelvis of the kidney to which it is attached, to the bladder. Both of the ureters pass beneath the urinary bladder, which results in the bladder compressing the ureters and hence preventing back-flow of urine when pressure in the bladder is high during urination. This prevention of back-flow is important because when it is not operating correctly cystitis, which is inflammation of the ureter / urinary bladder, may develop into a kidney infection.

Urethra - A tube that connects the urninary bladded to the genitals for the removal of fluids out of the body is the urethra. In males, the urethra travels through the penis, and carries semen as well as urine. In females, the urethra is shorter and emerges above the vaginal opening. Beneficial and Harmful Effects of Microorganisms by isonk

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