1. Explain the relationship between cells, tissues, organs and systems.
The relationship between cells, tissues, organs and systems is that a cell cannot work on its own so the single cells form together and become tissue. The tissue then comes together to form an organ. The organs then function together and become a system.

2. State with examples that organs are a group of tissues that coordinate to do a specific job.
Brain: The human brain controls the way you move, eat, talk, react etc.

Spinal Chord: The spinal cord sends reactions from the body to the brain.

Nerves: The nerves connects to the spinal cord and the brain. It is spread over your body and once it has reacted to something, it will send a message to the brain through the spinal cord to give the human body a full reaction.

3. Terminology List

4. Recall the word equation for cellular respiration.
Glucose + oxygen = energy + carbom dioxide + water

5. Label a diagram of the respiratory system (trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli).

external image respiratory_anatomy.jpg

6. Explain how air enters and exists the lungs.
Air enters the lungs when our muscles move and the diaphragm is lowered. When the pressure is low in the chest, air is able to rush into the lungs. When the air pressure is high, the air must rush out of our lungs.

7. Describe the process that occurs inside an alveolus.
When air goes into the alveolus, there is an exchange of gases between the alevolus and the blood in the capillaries surrounding the alveolus. Oxygen moves by diffusion from the alveolus into the blood and carbon dioxide moves from the capillaries into the alveolus to breathe out.

8. State the function of each of the following components of the circulatory system: arteries, veins, capillaries, heart., blood.
Arteries: Arteries are a blood vessel. They have thick, elastic, muscular walls that carry blood under high blood pressure away from the heart. Arteries carry blood away from the heart to the rest of the body.

Verins: Another type of blood vessel is the vein. Veins have a thinner wall and valves that prevent the blood from flowing backwards. Veins carry blood from the rest of the body to the heart.

Heart: The heart is a strong muscular organ that acts like a pimp for the circulatory system.

Blood: Blood is made up of 4 components: red blood cells, white blood cells, plasma and platelets.

9. Describe the function of the main components of blood (plasma, red and white blood cells and platelets).
Plasma: carry nutrients such as glucose around the body.

Red blood cells: carry oxygen around the body.

White blood cels: fight infections.

Platelets: clot when there is a cut so the cut is sealed.

10. Give examples of life saving technology that have arisen as a result of improved understanding of the circulatory system (artificial heart valves ECG and artificial blood).

ARTIFICIAL BLOOD: Artificial blood is used by patients because blood is a tissue which carries red blood cells, white blood cells and
nutrients. People need red blood cells as it carries oxygen and white blood cells as they fight infections.

ARTIFICIAL HEART: An artificial heart is basically a heart to replace the biological heart due to disease. An artificial heart functions like a normal heart and can be lasted for about 17 months.

ECG: An electrocardiogram (ECG) is a machine that shows if a person's heart beats normally or if it isn't. It can show if a human has arrhythmia (heart beats irregularly)

11. Outline the function of the following nutrients in keeping the body healthy: carbohydrates, proteins, fats and oils.
Carbohydrates: Give our body the energy to do things

Proteins: Help our body grow and replace worn out tissue

Fats and oils: Forms a layer of insulation. It's an important component of the cell membrane.

12. Label a diagram of the digestive system.

external image color.GIF
13. Outline the function of the organs of the digestive system.
Digestive System: Mouth: The mouth is the first process of the digestive system because it’s where you put your food in.
Pharynx: After your food has been passed the mouth, it goes past the pharynx. Your pharynx closes when you swallow so you won’t choke.
Oesophagus: After food is taken through the mouth, the food goes to the oesophagus which is a muscular tube in the chest which connects to the mouth and throat to the stomach.
Liver: The liver sits beside the stomach and is a very large organ. It helps break down the fats after they are swallowed.
Stomach: The stomach is located at the bottom of the chest. The stomach holds and stores the food.
Pancreas: The pancreas sits behind the stomach. It helps balance sugar levels in the stomach and it chemically breaks down fats, carbohydrates and proteins.
Gallbladder: The main job of the gallbladder is to store bile which is a dark green liquid that is produced by the liver. Bile is a substance which helps break down fats.
Small intestine: The small intestine consists of 3 parts: duodenum, jejunum and ileum. The small intestine digest fats, proteins and carbohydrates.
Large intestine: The large intestine is about 1.5m long and consists of 3 parts: Transverse colon, ascending colon and descending colon. This is where the food goes down to the anus.
Appendix: Humans still don’t know the function of the appendix.
Rectum: The rectum is where waste is stored before it becomes faeces.
Anus: The anus is where the waste goes through. All the food that you have eaten has finally been digested and exited your system.

14. Recall the 3 main functions of the skeletal system (support, protection of internal organs and providing anchor points for muscles.Note: students are not expected to be able to name the bones of the human body – this is covered in PDHPE
Support: The bones of a body gives support to a human to give it its shape and posture
Protection of internal organs: The bones protect the organs e.g. ribs protect the heart, lungs etc.
Anchor points for muscles: Bones provide support to muscles as muscles have something to hang onto

15. Describe the function of the excretory system.
The function of the excretory system is to get rid of waste products that are present in the blood. The excretory system removes metabloic wastes of an organism. Wastes that are removed include: carbon dioxide, water, salt and urea.

16. Label the urinary system. (diagram)
external image urinary-system-diagram.jpg
17. Recall the function of the following parts of the urinary system: kidney, bladder, ureters, urethra
Kidneys (2): Kidneys constantly filter blood to produce urine
Ureters (2): Ureters carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
Bladder: The urinary bladder stores urine unti it is released from the body
Urethra (1): The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body

xtranormal video

This xtranormal video explains how air enters and exists the lungs.

30/ 7 /2011
Cellular respiration is the process of cells producing energy in which they need to survive. Cells use oxygen to break down the glucose and store its energy in molecules. The formula for cellular respiration is glucose + oxygen --> energy + carbon dioxide + water.