Element Glog

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Organ systems are a group of tissues that work together to accomplish movement, support, protection, communication, transport, reproduction, digestion, gas exchange and waste removal.

Some of the organ systems in animals are digestive systems, reproductive systems, nervous system, circulatory system and respiratory system. They are all made up of different organs with a special purpose working together.

Explain how air enters and exists in the lungs:
Air enters when the diaphragm is lowered due to the movement of muscles. The lower pressure in the chest cavity causes air form the outside to rush into the lungs.

Describe the process that occurs inside an alveolus:
When air goes into the alveolus, there is an exchange of gases between the alveolus and the blood in the capillaries surrounding the alveolus. Oxygen moves by diffusion from the alveolus unto the blood and carbon dioxide moves from the capillaries unto the alveolus to be breathed out through the nose.

Labeled Diagram of the Respiratory System

Body Systems Video
  • Body has 3 requirements: nutrients, oxygen, excrete
  • Body systems work together in a highly coordinated matter
  • Breathing is the vital process that lets oxygen into our body and carbon dioxide out
  • Air enters our mouth and nose and passes to back of throat to the pharynx Then passes through larynx and trachea to lungs.
  • Larynx closes up as we swallow
  • Trachea breaks into smaller airways called the bronchi
  • Oxygen passes form the air into the blood. Carbon dioxide moves the other way
  • Carbon dioxide leaves the body as we breathe out

  • Cardio- Heart biological pump that circulates the blood around the body
  • Vascular- blood vessels
  • Also known as transport system and cardio vascular system
  • Transport oxygen to cells to your body and takes waste products such as carbon dioxide to be taken away
  • Blood takes oxygen to cells and brings carbon dioxide out when you breathe through your nose
  • Heart is a ball of muscle, surrounded by lungs
  • Heart is attached to lungs by large blood vessels
  • Pulmonary artery carries blood from the heart to the lungs
  • An artery is a blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to another part of the body
  • Blood returns from the lungs to the heart by the pulmonary veins
  • Aorta- large vessel carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body
  • Aorta divides into arteries, arteries divide into capillaries in the tissue
  • The capillaries re-joins to form veins, veins join together to form the vena cava

Function of Red Blood Cells
The tiny biconcave RBCs contain haemoglobin that attaches oxygen to be carried around the body.
Function of the White Blood Cells
The larger WBCs fight diseases by engulfing germs. Some WBCs produce antibodies.
Functions of Blood Cells
Plasma is a straw-coloured liquid which mostly consists of water, nutrients such as glucose and waste products such as carbon dioxide are carried around the body in the plasma.
Function of Platelets
Platelets help to clot blood when a blood vessel is cut.

They carry blood under high pressure away from your heart.
They have thick, elastic, muscular walls.
They carry blood from the rest of the body to the heart.
They have thinner walls and valves that prevent the blood from flowing backwards.
They carry materials such as oxygen and nutrients to the cells and remove wastes including carbon dioxide.
They are the smallest blood vessels.
Circulates the blood around the body.
Hollow organ full of muscle which is attached to the lungs by large blood vessels.

Nutrients such as glucose and some waste products, including carbon dioxide, are dissolved in the plasma.
Straw-coloured liquid and consist mostly of water.
Red blood cells
Carry oxygen from the lungs around the body.
Very small so they can fit inside tiny capillaries.
White Blood Cells
Some white blood cells engulf germs while others produce chemicals called antibodies that attack germs.
Very few white blood cells but they are larger than red blood cells. They have an irregular shape and can squeeze into small blood vessels.
Platelets help blood to clot if a blood vessel.
Platelets are found in the blood.

Blabber Video on Circulatory System:

An electrocardiogram (ECG) shows the electrical activity of a person's heart. ECG patterns are valuable in diagnosing heart disease or abnormalities. To produce the ECG, electrodes (flat pieces of metal that are connected to the ECG machine by wires) are stuck to the skin. The machine measures the tiny electrical impulses produced by the heart as it beats. It produces a trace similar to the one shown in the diagram above. An abnormal trace could indicate that the patient has arrhythmia. This is a condition where the heart beats irregularly. Another reason for an unusual trace could be a cardiac infarction. In this condition there is dead tissue in the heart. The electrical signal cannot travel through the dead tissue so the ECG looks abnormal. There are many other conditions that can cause an unusual ECG, and doctors will often follow up an abnormal ECG with further tests.

Electrocardiogram (ECG)

If you lose a lot of blood, you may need a blood transfusion. The blood from another person is injected into your veins to replace the blood you have lost. However, donated blood is always in short supply and the blood that is transfused must match your own blood type. If the person who donated the blood had an infection, there is also a risk of passing on that infection. What's the solution? Artificial blood.


It is now possible to replace faulty heart valves with artificial valveslike the one shown above. This requires surgery. The patient may also need to take medicine to prevent their blood from forming clots as it flows through the artificial valve.
Artificial Valves

Functions of Nutrients in Keeping the body healthy:
Carbohydrates- Carbohydrates spare protein so that protein can concentrate on building, repairing, and maintaining body tissues instead of being used up as an energy source.
Fats- The funtion of fats is to provide energy for the body. When we consume food which has more energy than required for our body, the excess food is deposited under the skin in the form of fat.
Proteins- Proteins build and repair body tissues (including muscle). Protein is a source of energy that also hel[s keep skiin, hair and nails healthy.

Labelled Diagram of the Digestive System

The mouth- The teeth grind the food and mix it with saliva to form a kind of ball, called a bolus. During the mixing, an enzyme called salivary amylase starts breaking down carboyhydrates. Once the food is soft and relatively flexible, the tongue pushes it to the back of the mouth and swallows it down the oesophagus.
The Oesophagus- The esophagus is a flattened, muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach. As food is swallowed, the esophagus expands as needed, and it takes food between one to eight seconds to pass through, depending on the food's degree of softness. One common medical problem of the esophagus is heartburn, which is a burning sensation caused by acid leaking from the stomach and irritating the lower part of the esophagus.
The stomach- The stomach is a "J-shaped" muscular pouch that receives food from the esophagus and sends it to the small intestine. Inside the stomach, food is churned and mixed with enzymes and acid until it's a liquid, called chyme. The stomach is the main site for protein digestion and uses powerful enzymes, called pepsins, and hydrochloric acid to digest foods like meats, milk and cheese.
The Small Intestine- The small intestine is an approximately 24 feet long muscular tube that is divided into three distinct parts: duodenum, jejunum and ileum. The three parts are major sites of digestion and absorption. Absorption is a crucial part of the digestive system that brings the molecules from the digested food into the blood and, ultimately, the cells.
The Large Intestine- The last part of the digestive tract, continuous with the small intestine, is a muscular tube about 5 feet long. It's divided into the cecum, colon and rectum and together, they tie up all the loose ends of digestion. This includes completing any nutrient absorption and processing the wastes into feces. Another important function of the large intestines is making some types of vitamin B and vitamin K. Now we look at three accessory organs of the digestion system: the pancreas, liver and gallbladder.
The Pancreas- Although perhaps best known as an organ of the endocrine system (because it secretes insulin which is required to regulate blood sugar levels), the pancreas is a necessary organ of digestion. It assists the small intestine by secreting pancreatic juice, a liquid with enzymes and sodium bicarbonate that is able to stop the digestion process of pepsin.
The Liver- The liver produces bile, which the small intestine uses to help digest the fats in food. However, bile production is one of only many essential functions performed by the liver. It also metabolizes proteins, carbohydrates and fats; helps regulate blood sugar levels; stores glycogen for quick energy; makes fibrinogen which clots blood; makes vitamin A; and recycles worn out red blood cells to name a few. Clearly, this is one organ we can't live without.
The Gallbladder- Tucked under the liver, the gallbladder is a storage container for bile, a yellow-green fluid that's made up of salts, cholesterol and lecithin. The small intestine uses bile to digest fats. Most people never think about their gallbladder until a problem with gallstones or gall bladder disease, such as cholecystitis, develops. Also, the gallbladder sometimes plays a part in jaundice. If bile cannot leave the gallbladder, it can enter the bloodstream and lead to jaundice.

To remove the metabolic wastes of an organism. Wastes that are removed include carbon dioxide, water, salt and urea.

Kidney- 2 kidneys constantly filter blood to produce urine.
Bladder- The urinary bladder stores urine until it is released from the body.
Ureters- 2 ureters carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
Urethra- The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body.
Excretory System

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GoAnimate.com: Microoganisms by Bianca Simpson

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