1. Explain the relationship between cells, tissues, organs and systems.

Cells make up tissues. Tissues make up organs. Organs make up systems.

Terminology List:

- Respiratory System: The respiratory system takes in oxygen and removes carbon dioxide and water.

- Digestive System: Breaks down and processes food. Removes waste products.

- Endocrine: Releases hormones to help keep the body healthy.

- Lympathatic System: Contains nodes which are little organs all over the body that trap and filter particles that are harmful to the body.

- Cardiovascular System: Transports nutrients, wastes and gases.

- Muscular: Maintains the body's heat and posture.

- Skeletal System: Provides support for the body and protects the vital organs.

- Integumentary: Defends against infection and maintains body temperature.

- Reproductive System: Allows us to produce offspring.

- Urinary System: Transports liquid waste out of the body.

4. Recall the word equation for respiration.

Glucose + Oxygen = Energy + Carbon Dioxide + Water

6. Label a diagram of the respiratory system (trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli).


Respiratory System: Question 7 & 8

9. State the function of each of the following components of the circulatory system: arteries, veins, capillaries, heart., blood.
10. Describe the function of the main components of blood (plasma, red and white blood cells and platelets).

Circulatory System:

Circulatory System Notes:

¡ A vein is an elastic blood vessel that transports blood from various regions of the body to the heart.
¡ Pulmonary veins carry blood with oxygen to the left atrium of the heart.

¡ An artery is an elastic blood vessel that transports blood away from the heart.
¡ There are two main types of arteries: pulmonary arteries and systemic arteries.

¡ A capillary is a small blood vessel located within the tissues of the body.
¡ Transports blood from arteries to veins.

¡ The organ that supplies blood and oxygen to all the parts of the human body.

¡ Red Blood Cells: Contains the iron-rich protein hemoglobin. The body constantly produces red blood cells to replace those that die or are lost from the body.
¡ White Blood Cells: Fights off infections.
¡ Platelets: Helps to clot the blood.
¡ Plasma: The liquid part of blood. Transports dissolved substances around the body and helps defend against disease.

11. Identify 3 lifesaving technologies associated with the circulatory system. Write a short note on each of these.

Artificial valves

Heart valves are flaps of tissue within the heart. They open and close to allow blood to flow into the correct cardiac areas in the right direction. Blood is supposed to flow from one of the heart's four chambers to the next. Closing a valve prevents any blood from leaking back. When one of the heart's four valves becomes too diseased or damaged to function properly, blood does not reach the proper area in the right volume. The only effective treatment is valve replacement. Artificial heart valves consist of an orifice, through which blood flows, and a mechanism that closes and opens the orifice. There are two types of artificial heart valves: mechanical devices made from synthetic materials; and biological or tissue valves made from animal or human tissue- Shirley.B

Artificial heart

The artificial heart can be made of titanium and plastic. An external battery which can supply about 4 to 5 hours of power is strapped to the waist. An internal rechargeable battery is also implanted inside the patients abdomen so they can be disconnected from the main battery for about 3o to 4o minutes for activities like showering.- Ekileti.N


Artificial Blood

A blood substitute (also called artificial blood or blood surrogates) is a substance used to mimic and fulfil some functions of biological blood, usually in the oxygen-carrying sense. They aim to provide an alternative to blood transduction, which is transferring blood or blood based products from one person into another.The main categories of such oxygen-carrying blood substitutes are haemoglobin based oxygen carriers. (HBOCs). - Siobhan.C


12. Outline the function of the following nutrients in keeping the body healthy: carbohydrates, proteins, fats and oils.

Food Group
Bread, rice, cereal
To supply energy to the body.
Fish, chicken, eggs
Helps your body grow and replaces worn out tissue
Fats and Oils
Butter, chocolate, fast food
Forms a layer of insulation to keep the body warm. Also forms part of the cell membrane.

13. Digestive System Diagram


14. Parts of the Digestive System

- Mouth : Digestion starts here as food enters through the mouth. Chewing breaks down the food while the saliva mixes with food to begin the process of breaking it down into a form your body can absorb and use.

- Oesophagus : Recieces food from the mouth when you swallow. Delivers food to the stomach.

- Stomach : A hollow organ that holds food while it mixes with enzymes that continue the process of breaking down food into a usable form. Cells in the lining of the stomach secrete a strong acid and powerful enzymes that are responsible for the breakdown process.When contents are fully processed, they are released into the small intestine.

- Small Intestine : Made up of three segments( the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. D.J.I). Breakes down food using enzymes released by the pancreas and bile from the liver. Contents of the small intestine start out semi-solid, and end in a liquid form. Once nutrients have been absorbed and the leftover-food residue liquid has passed through the small intestine, it then moves on to the large intestine, or colon.

- Large Intestine : Processes waste. Connects the small intestine to the rectum. Made up of the cecum, the ascending (right) colon, the transverse (across) colon, the descending (left) colon, and the sigmoid solon which connects to the rectum. The appendix is a small tube attatched to the cecum.

- Rectum : Connects the colon to the anus.

- Anus : Last part of the digestive tract. Takes waste out of the body.

15. Recall the 3 main functions of the skeletal system (support, protection of internal organs and providing anchor points for muscles.

There are 5 functions of the skeletal system. To give us shape, protection, movement, storage and production.

Shape: Provides a framework and structure for the body.
Protection: Protects vital organs like the brain and the lungs.
Movement: Muscles pull bones to create movement. Bones give muscles something to hold to.
Storage: Bones store minerals like calcium and phosphorus. They are released into the blood when needed.
Production: The bone marrow produces red and white blood cells.

16 & 18 .Excretory System

The Excretory System Notes from the Empressr video.

The excretory system is designed to remove waste products that are circulating in the blood. These waste products include: carbon dioxide, water, salt and urea.


The excretory system mainly consists of the kidneys, ureter, urinary, bladder and the urethra. Each organ having a very important role in the system.


Two Kidneys constantly filter blood to produce urine.


Two ureters carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.


The urinary bladder stores urinary bladder stores urine until it is released from the body.


The tube that carries urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body.

17. Urinary System Diagram

Adaptations Task: Sea Turtles and Tropical Rainforest Plants