1. Explain the relationship between cells, tissues , organs and systems:

A cell is a single unit of organisms. When many cells form together, tissues are formed. When tissues come together, organs are formed. Then when organs work with each other a system is formed.

2. State, with examples that organs are a group of tissues that coordinate to do a specific job:

An organ is made from a group of different tissues, which all work together to do a particular job, your organs include your heart, lungs, liver, large intestines, brain and many more. These organs allow the body to function, each organ having a different part in the body. Organs allow you to inhale and exhale, to digest food, remove waste and many more. All these organs make up different systems in your body such as the digestive system, excretory system, nervous system, reproductive system, circulatory system, skeleto-muscular system and the respiratory system.

3. Make a terminology list in your wiki using the words that you have learned from the two Quia quizzes:

Larynx: The hollow muscular organ forming an air passage to the lungs and holding the vocal cords in humans and other mammals; the voice boxBronchiole: Any of the minute branches into which a bronchus divides.Diaphragm:A dome-shaped, muscular partition separating the thorax from the abdomen in mammals. It plays a major role in breathing, as its contraction increases the volume of the thorax and so inflates the lungs.Bronchi:Any of the major air passages of the lungs that diverge from the windpipeTrachea:A large membranous tube reinforced by rings of cartilage, extending from the larynx to the bronchial tubes and conveying air to and from the lungs; the windpipeRespiration:Respiration or the organs of respiration.
Excretory system: The excretory system is a passive biological system that removes excess, unnecessary or dangerous materials from an organism.

6. Label a diagram of the respiratory system

external image respiratory_system.jpg

6. Explain how air enters and exits the lungs:

The lung has branches that contain tubes and air sacs. Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide enters through the nose and mouth which leads to the throat, then the trachea which carries the air to the chest. The trachea is split into two major bronchi leading one to each lung. The bronchi end up splitting into smaller and smaller tubes that leads to many alveoli. These alveoli are surrounded by capillaries. The air enters the capillaries and alveoli and Carbon Dioxide is leaves the lung when you exhale.

7. Describe the process that occurs inside the alveolus

The aveoli are the very small air sacs air goes when breathed in. They are considered a very important function within the lung. The alveolar sacs consist of many alveoli and are composed of a single layer of epithelial tissue.

8. State the function of each of the following components of the circulatory system: arteries, veins, capillaries, heart, blood

What are arteries: Arteries carry blood away from the heart to tthe rest of the body
What is a vien: Veins carry the blood from the rest of the body to the heart
What are capillaries: Capillaries are very important blood vessels because they carry materials such as oxygen and water.
What is the heart: The heart is the organ that supplies blood and oxygen to all parts of the body
What is blood: The red liquid that circulates in the arteries and veins of vertebrate animals, carrying oxygen to and carbon dioxide from the tissues of the body.

9. Describe the function of the main components of blood (plasma, red and white blood cells and platelets).

Plasma: Plasma carries the blood cells around the body
Red blood cells: Red blood cells remove waste from the body such as Carbon Dioxide. Red Blood cells also gives us colour.
White Blood cells: White Blood cells protect the body from germs and diseases
Platelets: Platlets stop bleeding in open cuts and wounds.

Cellular Respiration Summary:

The cellular Respiration process is Glucose + Oxygen --> Carbon Dioxide + Energy + Water

Digestive System Organ Functions:

The Mouth is where the digestive tract begins. Enzymes released into the mouth start the process of digestion
The epiglottis is the small piece of tissue that covers the opening to the larynx and trachea to keep food and liquid out of the lungs when you swallow.
The gallbladder is a small pouch that stores bile (liquid). The gallbladder releases bile into the small intestine to help digest fats in the food you eat.
Small Intestine
The Small intestine is called small because of its width, not it's length. It's actually much longer than the large intestine. The small and large intestines form one continuous tube.
  • DUODENUM: The word duodeni is Latin means "12 each." The duodenum, which is part of the small intestine, was though to be about as long as the width of twelve fingers.
  • JEJUNUM: The Jejunum is the middle section of the small intestine is about 1.5 to 2.5 meters long.
  • ILEUM: The ileum is the final section of the small intestine. At 5 to 6 meters, it's also the longest.
The Appendix is attached to the cecum. When it gets inflames it's called appendicitis.
Because both food and air move through it, the pharynx is part of both the respiratory ans digestive systems
The Esophagus is a soft, muscular tube that moves food from the pharynx to the stomach
The liver is the body's largest internal organ. The liver performs many tasks, including storing energy and helping the body get rid of toxins (poisons)
The stomach has a lining that's tough enough to hold up the highly acidic environment needed to break down food.
The pancreas makes hormones (including insulin) to regulate the blood glucose level. It also makes enzymes to break down food in the intestines.
Large Intestine
The Large Intestine consists of three parts - the cecum, colon and rectum.
  • CECUM: The cecum is the pouch like beginning of the large intestine.
  • COLON: The colon is the largest part of the large intestine, and has three parts- the ascending, transverse and descending colon.
  • RECTURN: The return is the final 15 to 20 cm of the large intestine. It stores faeces until they leave the body.
The anus marks the exit point of the digestive tract where faeces leave the body

11. Outline the function of the following nutrients in keeping the body healthy: carbohydrates, proteins, fats and oil

Nutrition Information:

The three groups include the:
  • Carbohydrates
  • Protiens
  • Fats
Carbohydrates provide the body with the main source of energy. Carbohydrates include Potatoes, Bread and Pasta.
Protiens are natural Building Blocks, that help your body to grow and to replace worn out tissue. Protiens include Fish, Milk and Meat

Fats keep you warm as it forms a layer of insulation around tour body and is an important component of the cell membrane.Fats include Butter and animal fats.

10.Technology used in the Circuilatory Sytem:

The Artificial Heart: Using satellite and airplane technology, French Scientist have created an artificial heart. The artificial heart is used as a replacement for diseased or non working hearts in other words, ‘Heart Failure.' Artificial heart valves consist of an orifice, through which blood flows, and a mechanism that closes and opens the orifice.
The Electrocardiogram
The electrocardiogram is a transthoracic interpretation of the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time, as detected by electrodes attached to the outer surface of the skin and recorded by a device external to the body.

Artificial blood: is a substitute for real blood. By doing blood transfusions we are able to get blood from one person to another.

13. Outline the function of the organs of the digestive system.

Mouth and throat: the mouth is the first organ in the digestive system that leads food into the body.
The esophagus is the tube that carries food, liquids and saliva from your mouth to the stomach.
Stomach: Churns food
Small intestine:extracts nutrients from food
Large intestine:extracts water from food
Liver: produces bile
Pancreas: gets glucose
Gallbladder: makes urine
Anus: takes away waste

12. Label a diagram of the digestive system.

external image color.GIF

15. Describe the function of the excretory system.

The excretory system rids the body of unneessary wastes and nitrogen. It also regulates the amount of water and irons in the body.

16. Label the urinary system. (diagram)

external image 60.gif

3. Identify a variety of organ systems in animals and recall that they are made up of different organs with a special purpose working together
respiratory system- lungs,mouth, trachea
digestive system-stomach,small intestine, large intestine, gall bladder, pancreas
excretory system- bladder, kidneys, anus, rectum,ureters, urethra

14. Recall the 3 main functions of the skeletal system
1) It gives support and stucture to the body
2) It is a place for muscle attachment and movement
3) It protects organs such as the heart

17. Recall the function of the following parts of the urinary system: kidney, bladder, ureters, urethra.
Kidney- regulates body fluids
Bladder- stores urine
tubular structure that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder
Urethra- lets go of urine