Cells, Tissues, Organs and Systems 25/07/11
Cells make up tissues,
Tissues make up organs,
Organs make up an working system...

Tissues make organs and these organs come together with other organs to create a system. These systems are all have a specific job. . For example; the mouth, food pipe, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver and the pancreas all work together to make the Digestive System. The Digestive System collects the food that we consume and breaks it down into chemicals that the body can use. Another example would be the Nervous System. The Nervous System consists of the brain, spinal cord and the nerves. All of these organs work together to send messages around the body, so that our body parts can communicate with eachother. This allows a organism to move, talk, eat and many other things.
Sometimes an organ can belong to more than one system.

Terminology List!

circulatory system
Sends blood from the heart to all the other parts of our bodies and back again.
digestive system
breaksdown food and aborbs them into the circulatory system. The organs that make this system include the esophagus, stomach and intestines. It is aided by other organs such as the liver, gall bladder, pancreas and salicary gland.
respiratory system
takes in toygen and removes carbon dioxide and water. The organs that make this system include the trachea, brochioles, lungs and mouth.
The endocrine system is instrumental in regulating mood, growth and development, tissue function, and metabolism, as well as sexual function and reproductive processes. The organs of this system include the pituitary gland, adrenal glands, thymus gland, thyroid, ovary and testes.
lymphatic system
The lymphatic system is an extensive drainage network that helps keep bodily fluid levels in balance and defends the body against infections. Organs include: nodes, tonsils and spleen.
muscular system
maintains the bodys heat and posture.
nervous system
Coordinates body actions and monitors the environment. Organs include: brain and nerves.
cardiovascular system
Transports untrients, gases and chemical wastes. Organs include: heart and blood vessels.
First line of defense against infection, maintains body temperature. Organs include: skin, hair and nails.
reproductive system
Produce offspring to maintain the species. Organs include: uterus, fallopian tubes, testes, vas deferens
urinary system
Removes liquid waster from the body. Organs include: ureters, urethra, bladder.
muscular system
Moves bones and protects organs
skeletal system
Provides support and protection. Organs: cartilage, bones and joints.

The Respiratory System: 25/07/11

Explain how air enters and exits the lungs.
Air enters when the diaphragm is lowered due to the movement of muscles. The lowered pressure in the chest cavity causes air from the outside to rush into the lungs.

The Alveolus

Celluar Respiratory System 30/07/11
Glucose + Oxygen = Energy + Carbon Dioxide + Water

The Cardio- vascular System 1/08/11

Arteries have thick, elastic, muscular walls and they carry blood AWAY from your heart
Veins have thinner walls and valves that prevent the blood from flowing backwards. It carries blood TO from the heart.
Capillaries are very important blood vessel because they carry materials such as oxygen and nutrients to all cells in the body and remove wastes including carbon dioxide.
The heart is about the size of your fist and it has two pumps. It pumps blood throughout the whole body.
It carries oxygen to cells, it carries waste away from cells, and serves as a carrier for various disease-fighting cells such as the "white" blood cells.- To carry nutrients such as Glucose- To carry wastes such as carbon dioxide
- To carry oxygen around the body
-To fight diseases
-To clot when there is a cut.
Blood fluid that carries the blood cell.
Function of Red Blood Cells (RBC)
The tiny biconcave RBCs contain haemoglobin that attaches oxygen to be carried around the body.
Function of White Blood Cells (WBCs)
The larger WBCs fight diseases by engulfing the germs. Some WBCs produce antidotes that attack germs.
Functions of Blood Plasma
Plasma is straw- coloured liquid which mostly consists of nutrients such as water, glucose and waste produce such as carbon dioxide are carried around the body in plasma.
Function of Platelets
Platelets help to clot blood when a blood vessel is cut.

Modern Medical Technology 6/08/11

Artificial Heart:
The artificial heart is made of titanium and plastic. A small electronic device is implanted in the abdominal wall to the monitor and control the pumping speed. There are two batteries, one external and one internal. The external battery is strapped around the waist providing 4-5 hours of power. The internal which is also implanted in the abdomen can be disconnected from the main battery for 30-40 mins so that the bearer can do activities such as showering.
Artificial hearts are typically used in order to bridge the time to heart transplantation, or to permanently replace the heart in case transplantation is impossible. The first artificial heart was the Jarvik-7, designed by Robert Jarvik.
Electrocardiograms (ECG)
An electrocardiogram ,or ECG for short, is a medical test that detects cardiac abnormalities by measuring and recording the electrical activity of the heart. The ECG works through the use of flat pieces of metal that are connected to the ECG machine, called electrodes. These electrodes pick up the impulses of the heart, producing a trace of detailed information. The abnormal ECG’s are created when dead tissue is in the heart as the electrical signal cannot travel through the dead tissue. If abnormal details are shown in the electrocardiogram this suggest heart conditions, so doctors perform further tests. This allows them to diagnosis a wide range of heart conditions, such as heart arrhythmias and cardiac infarction.
Artificial Blood
Artificial blood is the alternate for the short supply of donated blood, however no-one has perfected the artificial blood. At this moment there are many teams of scientists who are trying to create the perfect replacement of blood, which ideally had a long self-life, does not refrigerated, does not need to match the patient’s blood type and is guaranteed to be free of disease- causing germs.
In South African hospitals an artificial blood called Hemopure, is being used to cure severe anaemia. Hemopure is made from the haemoglobin obtained from ‘expired’ blood or from animal blood. The haemoglobin acts like red blood cells as it is wrapped in chemicals. However, Hemopure has not been approved for human use in Australia, since there are side effects to Hemopure. South Africa still use it as the benefits of using this product overshadows the risks.
Pictures and research from Jacaranda Plus, Core Science Stage 4
My Video for Technologies and Modern Science/Medicine

The Digestive System 8/8/11


chop and cut the food to smaller pieces.
changes starch to sugar. Adds liquid to the food making it easier to swallow.
mixes the food with the saliva
food tube, tube where food pushes down from the mouth to the stomach
mixes food, digestive juices so that it can break food down
first part of the small intestine. Food is broken down further.
small intestine
nutrients are absorbed into the blood stream
large intestine
bacteria removes nutrients and water from waste
stores solid waste
salivary glands
produces saliva
gall bladder
stores bile and brings it to the small intestine where it is used to break down food.
makes bile, stores nutrients that the body does not use
makes chemicals to break down food, makes insulin
chemical that breaks down food
helps cells use sugar
digestive juices
acids and enzymes that break down food
breaks down fat

The Excretory System 9/8/11

The Urinary System 11/8/11urinary.png sys.png

Function of the Kidney:
Function of the excretory system is to remove the metabolic wastes of an organism. Wastes that are removed include carbon dioxide, water, salt and urea.
Functions of the:
  • Kidney- 2 kidneys constantly filter blood to produce urine.
  • Ureters- 2 ureters carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
  • Bladder- The urinary bladder stores urine until it is released from the body.
  • Uretus- is the tube that carries urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body.

The Skeletal System 15/08/11

Nutrients 16/8/11
Food Group
Whole grains eg. Bread
Provide the body with energy
Meat, poultry
Helps the body grow and repair.
Fats and Oils
Butter and Oil
Provides a layer of insulation for the body and it is an important component of the cell membrane.


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Adaptions and Food Web 7/11/11


The Beneficial and Harmful Effects of Microorganisms 10/11/11 The Effects of Microorganisms by TinyBallerina

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Abiotic and Biotic Factors in an Ecosystem 19/11/11

Food Chains and Food Webs 19/11/11

Producers are plants as they are able to use light energy from the Sun to produce food.

Consumers are animals that must eat other plants and animals. They are not able to produce their own foods. Primary consumers are herbivores; animals that only eat plants. Secondary Consumers are carnivores that eat herbivores. Tertiary consumers are carnivores that eat other carnivores.
Decomposers are organisms that break down dead organic matter and return the nutrients back to the soil.

Here is an example of a coastal food chain:



Defintions of Ecology 19/11/11Definitions_of_Ecology.PNG