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1. Define the terms community, population, ecosystem and environment.

2. Recall, with examples, producers, consumers, scavengers and decomposers.
  • Producers are a group of organisms, or an organism which makes its own food.
    • Examples:
      • Sea Weed
      • Algae
  • Consumers are organisms which rely on other organisms as food. They feed on other plants and animals.
    • Examples:
      • Humans
      • Birds
  • Decomposers break down the bodies of dead organisms.
    • Examples:
      • Worms
      • Fungi
  • Scavengers that feed on dead and decaying materials.
    • Examples:
      • Crabs
      • Rock pool shrimp

4. Construct simple food chains and food webs.


5. Describe how producers, consumers and decomposers in Australian ecosystems are related, using food chains and food webs.
Activies from Ecology Wiki Page:

Beneficial and Harmful Effects of Microorganisms! Beneficial and Harmful Effects of Microorganisms by seniorc

Like it? Create your own at It's free and fun!

Write a Summary of The 3 Outcomes:
1. Explain the relationship between cells, tissues, organs and systems.
A cell is a single unit organism, and when many similar cells come together, they form tissues. Tissues come together to form organs, and when there is a group of organs, that work together they form an organ system.

2. State, with examples that organs are a group of tissues that coordinate to do a specific job.
Tissues come together to form organs, which come and work together to create a system. There are many different types of systems, each having a different job. For example, the nose, mouth, windpipe and both lungs form the respiratory system. The respiratory system’s primary function is to supply the body’s blood with oxygen and to remove carbon dioxide from the blood. It does this through breathing. As we breathe, oxygen is inhaled and carbon dioxide is exhaled. Another example of an organ system, is the digestive system. The digestive system collects the food that is consumed and breaks it down into chemicals. The digestive system consists of, the mouth, food-pipe, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver and pancreas.

3. Identify a variety of organ system in animals and recall that they are made up of different organs with a special purpose working together.
Animals bodies are made up of different organ systems, which each have their own purpose. These organ systems are made up of organs, which work together to perform a specific function.
The organ systems include:
- The Circulatory system: Circulates oxygen throughout the body and gets rid of waste.
- The reproductive system: Produces offspring/new life
- The skeletal system: Gives the body shape/form, allows movement, stores nutrients, protects tissues and organs, produces bone marrow, gives our muscles somewhere to hang.
- The digestive system: The process of digestion.
- The respiratory system: Circulates oxygen throughout the body.
- The excretory system: Gets rid of waste.
Terminology List of Words from Quia Activities:
A single contraction of the lower chambers of the heart that drives blood through the body.
Skeletal System
Provides support and protection. Consisting organs: Cartilage, bones and joints.
Muscular System
Moves bones and protects organs, maintains the body’s heat and pressure.
Urinary System
Removes liquid waste from the body. Consisting organs: ureter, urethra and bladder.
Lymphatic System
Defends the body against infections. Drains fluid from around cells to eliminate swelling. Organs: nodes, tonsils and spleen.
Reproductive System
Produces offspring to maintain the species. Consisting Organs: testes, fallopian tubes, uterus, vas deferens.
cardiovascular System
Transports nutrients, gases and chemical wastes. Consisting Organs: heart and blood vessels.
Nervous System
Coordinates the body’s actions and movements. Monitors the environment. Consisting Organs: brain and nerves.
Respiratory System
Supplies the body’s blood with oxygen, by taking oxygen in and breathing carbon dioxide out. Consisting organs: trachea, bronchioles, lungs, nose and mouth.
Digestive System
Breaks-down consumed food into chemicals. Consisting organs: Liver, gall bladder, pancreas, salivary gland, oesophagus, stomach, and intestines.
First line of defence against infection and maintains the body’s temperature. Consisting Organs: hair, skin and nails.
4. Recall the word equation for cellular respiration.
Cellular Respiration
  • Requires Oxygen.
  • The word equation for cellular Respiration is Oxygen + Glucose = Energy + Carbon Dioxide + Water.
5. Label a diagram of the respiratory system (trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli).
6. Explain how air enters and exists the lungs.

7. Describe the process that occurs inside an alveolus.
Air goes into the alveolus, there and there is an exchange of gases between the alveolus and the blood in the capillaries which surround the alveolus. Through diffusion, oxygen moves from the alveolus into the blood and carbon dioxide moves from the capillaries into the alveolus and is breathed out through the nose.
8. State the function of each of the following components of the circulatory system: arteries, veins, capillaries, heart., blood, and 9. Describe the function of the main components of blood (plasma, red and white blood cells and platelets).


The circulatory system, is also known as the transport system, or the cardio-vascular system. The word cardio-vascular comes from cardio referring to the heart, and vascular referring the blood.
There are many components which make up the circulatory system. These include:
Arteries: Arteries have thick, elastic, muscular walls and they carry blood under high pressure away from your heart. They carry blood from the heart.
Veins: Veins have thinner walls than arteries, and they have valves that prevent the blood from flowing backwards. They carry blood, from the rest of the body, to the heart.
Capillaries: Capillaries are extremely important blood vessels that carry materials such as oxygen and nutrients to the cells and they remove wastes like carbon dioxide and water. This process takes place because the walls of the capillaries are 1 cell thick.
Heart: The heart is the biological pump which circulates blood throughout your body. They heart is approximately the size of your fist. The heart is an organ that pumps blood to the whole body.
Blood: Contains oxygen.
The main components of blood include plasma, which is a straw coloured liquid, red and white blood cells, and platelets, the functions of these components are to:
  1. To carry nutrients such as glucose
  2. To carry waste such as carbon dioxide
  3. To carry oxygen around the body
  4. To fight disease
  5. To clot when there is a cut so the cut is sealed
There are 2 different types of blood cell, there red blood cells (RBC's) and the white blood cells (WBC's). The RBC's are smaller than WBC's and they contain haemoglobin that attaches oxygen to be carried around the body. WBCs are large and they fight diseases. Some WBC's produce antidotes that attack germs.
10. Give examples of life saving technology that have arisen as a result of improved understanding of the circulatory system (artificial heart valves ECG and artificial blood).
Technology and the circulatory system Onenote Worksheet - In class 3/8/11 and finished for homework 6/8/11 - Worked in Pairs with Christina K
Give examples of life saving technology that have arisen as a result of improved understanding of the circulatory system (artificial heart valves ECG and artificial blood).

Read your text Chapter 10.8 p282

      • Artificial heart
      • Artificial Blood
      • Artificial Valve


  1. Identify 3 life saving technologies associated with the circulatory system. Write a short note on each of these. Cut and paste an image that will help you to remember these 3 technologys.
  • Artificial heart (By Christina) - The artificial heart is made of titanium and plastic. A smallelectronic device is implanted in the abdominal wall to the monitor and control the pumping speed. There are two batteries, one external and one internal. The external battery is strapped around the waist providing 4-5 hours of power. The internal which is also implanted in the abdomen can be disconnected from the main battery for 30-40 mins so that the bearer can do activities such as showering.
    Artificial hearts are typically used in order to bridge the time to heart transplantation, or to permanently replace the heart in case transplantation is impossible. The first artificial heart was the Jarvik-7, designed by Robert Jarvik.
Artifical Heart
  • Artificial Blood (By Me) - The alternate solution to donated blood, is artificial blood. No-one, has made a perfect replacement for blood, but many scientists around the world, are working on it, aiming to create artificial blood, that doesn’t require refrigeration, has long shelf life, doesn’t have to match a persons blood type, and guaranteed to be free of disease causing germs. A type of artificial blood called Hemopure, has been approved to treat some cases in South African Hospitals. It is made from haemoglobin obtained from either animal blood or blood that has passed its use-by date. This artificial blood, is designed to act like red blood cells and to carry oxygen around the body, but it has not been approved in Australia (for human use). It is not an ideal replacement for donated blood, as there have been many side effects from using Hemopure, in other countries.
Hemopure - Artificial Blood

  • Artificial Valve (By Me)- The heart has 4 valves that it strong relies on to work properly, if any of the valves get damaged the hearts function becomes impaired. The valves of the heart, open and close to let blood in and out of the different chambers of the heart and to stop blood from flowing backwards. Now it is possible to replaced damaged valves with artificial valves, this is a surgical procedure.

Artifical Valve

Pictures and research from Jacaranda Plus, Core Science Stage 4

Life saving technology that has arisen as a result of improved understanding of the circulatory system - 6/8/11
Task: Complete learning outcome 10. Give examples of life saving technology that have arisen as a result of improved understanding of the circulatory system (artificial heart valves, ECG and artificial blood). by making a media piece that shows your understanding of these technologies. As usual, you may make a video, a podcast or a ppt. and upload to your wiki.
11. Outline the function of the following nutrients in keeping the body healthy: carbohydrates, proteins, fats and oils.

Food Group
Pasta, Bread, Potato's
Carbohydrates provide your body with energy.
Meat, Fish, Chicken
Proteins help the body to grow and they help to replace worn out tissues.
Fats and Oils
Butter, Cream, Oils
Fats and oils form part of the cell membrane.

12. Label a diagram of the digestive system.

13. Outline the function of the organs of the digestive system.
Components of The Digestive System - 8/8/11
The digestive system consists of many parts including:

  • The Mouth
  • Liver
  • Gall Bladder
  • Small Intestine
  • Large Intestine
  • Cecum
  • Anus
  • Rectum
  • Stomach
  • Oesophagus
  • pancreas

Where food enters the body and where the process of digestion begins.
A large organ which is located at the front of the stomach, which filters toxins from the blood and it produces bile.
Gall bladder
A small organ, which looks like a sac. It stores and releases a digestive chemical called bile, into the small intestine.
Small Intestine
The longest portion of the digestive tract, more than 6 metres long and located in the middle of the abdomen.
Large Intestine
The large intestine is wider than the small intestine. It is a long tube like organ, located in the abdomen.
The start of the large intestine. The appendix is connected to the cecum.
The opening of the rectum to the outside of your body.
The lower part of the large intestine. Feces are stored here and they are then excreted form the body.
An organ which is connected to the mouth through the oesophagus.
The tube that connects the mouth to the stomach. It uses rhythmic muscle movement, which forces food into the stomach.
A gland located below the stomach, above the intestines. The pancreas produce enzyme's which help the digestion off carbohydrates, fats and proteins in the small intestine.


14. Recall the 3 main functions of the skeletal system (support, protection of internal organs and providing anchor points for muscles.
The main functions of the Skeletal System
  • To maintain Shape
  • Movement
  • Protect soft tissues
  • Give the muscles somewhere to cling to
  • Produce marrow
  • Store nutrients

The Skeletal System - 16-8-11
The human body has 206 bones. These bones are called the skeleton and with muscles, they make up the skeletal system. The main functions of the Skeletal System are:
  • To maintain Shape - Without the skeletal system, we'd be gooey, squishy and formless
  • Movement - Muscles and bones work together to create movement.
  • Protect soft tissues - The skeleton is the framework of the body, it protects tissues and it provides. protection of our organs.
  • It gives our muscles somewhere to cling to
  • Produce marrow
  • Store nutrients.
In the skeletal system, there are 5 types of bone, Short Bones like your ankles and wrists, Long Bones like your fingers, Flat bones like your skull, irregular bones like your spine or hip, and sesamoid bones in your hands, knee or foot. Any areas where 2 bones meet are called joints. The 3 main types of joints are Hinge joints, ball and socket, and gliding joints. Bones are made up of Calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and collagen, and when too much pressure is put on these bones, they will break or fracture. There are many different types of fractures including, Compound fracture, impact fracture, comminuted fracture, greenstick fracture, avulsion fracture, and a pathological fracture.
15. Describe the function of the excretory system.
Excretory System
The excretory system is designed to get rid of waste products that circulate in the blood. The components of the excretory system include, 2 kidnes, 2 ureters, the urethra and the bladder. Each of these componentt have their own significant function.
The Kidneys: There are 2 kidneys which constantly filter blood to the ureters.
The Ureters: There are 2 ureters which carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
The Bladder: The bladder stores the urine ntil it is released from the body.
The Uretra - The Urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside fo the body.

16. Label the urinary system.

17. Recall the function of the following parts of the urinary system: kidney, bladder, ureters, urethra.
The Kidneys: There are 2 kidneys which constantly filter blood to the ureters.
The Ureters: There are 2 ureters which carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
The Bladder: The bladder stores the urine ntil it is released from the body.
The Uretra - The Urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside fo the body.