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25/7/11 -

Cells, Tissues, Organs and Systems

1. Explain the relationship between cells, tissues, organs and systems.

The relastionship between cells, tissues, organs, and systems are that they each join together to form a organ system such the Digestive stystem. When meany cells form together tissues are formed. And when the tissues are formed organs are formed. Then when certain organs joing togther they join to make a organ system, the organs work together to to keep us alive.

2. State, with examples that organs are a group of tissues that coordinate to do a specific job.

The Heart - Pumps blood around the body.
Lungs -Transport oxygen into the bloodstream, and release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere.
The Stomach-Breaks down and transports food into the body.
Kidneys-Removes waste from the blood and eliminates it in the urine.
The Skin - The Skin lets out sweat that protects our body from harmful chemaicl, posion etc.
Bladder - The bladder is an organ the collects urine excreted from the kidneys before we go to the toliet!
Brain - The human brain is the centre of the human nervous system the barin sends messages/movement all around your body. Its helps you think, see, move, listen, taste etc.

3. Identify a variety of organ systems in animals and recall that they are made up of different organs with a special prupose working together.

- RespiratorySsystem-Takes in oxygen and removes carbon dioxide and water. The organs which make up the respiratory system include the nose, mouth, lungs & windpipe.
- Digestive System-Breaks down food and absorbs them into the circulatory system. The organs which make up the digestive system include the mouth, food pipe, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver and pancreas.
- Nervous System-Coordinates body actions & monitors the environment. Organs which make up the nervous system include the brain & nerves.
- Cardiovascular System-Transports nutrients, gases & chemical wastes. The organs which make up the cardiovasculasystem include the heart, blood & vessels.


30/7/11 -

Cellular Repiratory System

4. Recall the word equation for repiration.
Oxygen + Glucose = Energy + Carbon Dioxide + Water



26/7/11 -

Respritory System


5. Label a diagram of the respitory system



Respiratory_System.png



Alveoli_diagram.JPG



alveolus.gif

6. Explain how air enters and exists the lungs.
Air enters when the diaphargm
´╗┐
Air enters when the diaphragm is lowered due to the movement of muscles. The lower pressure in the chest cavity causes air from the outside to rush into the lungs.
Inhalation (breathing in)
  1. As the diaphragm contracts, it flattens and moves down.
  2. The external intercostal muscles contract which lifts the ribs upwards and outwards.
  3. The resulting increase in the volume of the thorax causes a decrease in the air pressure and fresh air is drawn into the lungs.
Exhalation (breathing out)
  1. The diaphragm relaxes and moves upwards.
  2. The intercostal muscles relax and the ribcage drops downwards and inwards.
  3. This results in a decrease in the volume of the thorax and the air in the lungs is pushed out.

7. Describe the process that occurs inside a alveolus


Vocabulary List
Respiratory-takes in oxygen and removes carbon dioxide an water
Endocrine- hormones that control bodily functions
Lymphatic- contains nodes that may inflame and indicate the presence of infection and drains fluid from around cells to eliminate swelling
Muscular- maintains the body's heat and posture and moves the bones to protects organs
Nervous- coordinates body actions and monitors the environment
Cardiovascular- transports nutrients, gases and chemical wastes
Integumentary- first line of defense against infection; maintains body temperature
Reproductive- produce offspring to maintain the species
Urinary- removes liquid waste from the body
Skeletal- provides support & protection
Digestive- breaksdown foodstuffs and absorbs them into the circulatory system
Bronchioles - a system in the body that regulates digestion of foodstuff

Circulatory System

9. State the function of each of the following components of the circulatory system: arteries, veins, capillaries, heart., blood.
Arteries- Arteries thick elastic walls that carry blood frm the heart and transports it to the rest of the body
Veins- Veins have thin walls and valves that stops the blood from flowing backwards. Veins carry the de-oxygenated blood to and from the body.
Capillaries- Capilla´╗┐ries are the smallest blood vessels in our body. Capillaries carry materials such as oxygen and remove nutrients to the cells and removes waste including carbon dioxide and water, they are the smallest blood vessels in our body.
Heart-The heart is a strong muscular organ that acts as a bilogical pump that circulates the blood around the body.
Blood- Carries nutrients (glucose), waste (carbon dioxide), oxygen around the body, fighst disease, clots when there is a cut so the cut is sealed.

10. Describe the function of the main components of blood (plasma, red and white blood cells and platelets).
Plasma-Plasma is a straw coloured liquid which mostly consists of water and nutrients (glucose) and waste products (carbon dioxide).
Red Blood Cells - Red Blood Cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body
White Blood Cells - White Blood Cells fight diseases and stops germs. But others can produce chemicals called antibodies which attack germs
Platelets - Platelets help blood to clot if a blood vessel is cut. This seals up a cut so that germs cannot enter the body.

Life Saving Technology


11. Give examples of life saving technology that have arisen as a result of improved of the circulatory system (artifical heart, values, ECG and artificial blood).


Digestive System

13. Label a diagram of the digestive system.


Digestive_System_Diagram.JPG

14. Outline the function of the organs of the digestive system.

Body Part
Infomation/Function in the Body
Mouth
The mouth is the first step of Digestive System. This is where the food eneters the body. Chewing and saliva breaks down the food, which is the beginning of the Digestive System.
Oesophagus
The oesophagus is a tube that passes down your throat between the mouth and the stomach. It uses peristalsis to force food down the oesophagus into the stomach.
Liver
The liver is a very large organ that lies below the diaphram and to the right of the stomach. The liver produces bile (which breaks down fat). The liver also stores nutrients from food and medicines.
Stomach
The stomach is located in bottom of the chest and just below the oesophagus. The food first enters the stomach and is then stored there for
Gall Bladder
The gallbladder is a small pouch that stores bile. The gallbladder releases bile into the duodenum to help digest fats in the food you eat.
Pancreas
The pancreas make hormones (including insulin) to regulate the blood glucose level. It also makes enzymes to break down the food in the intestines.
Large Intestines
The large intestine is a long, wide tube that consists of three parts- the cecum, colon and rectum. Food goes through the large intestines after it goes through the small intestine. It contains a good bacteria which removes nutrients and water from waste. Then the food exits the intestines in to the rectum.
Small Intestines
The small intestines are located in the middle of the abdomen, it has three sections, the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. The small intestines digestion of fat, proteins and carbohydrates contained in the foods that you consume. The resulting nutrients produced are absorbed through the lining of the small intestine and transferred to the bloodstream.
Appendix
Small sac located near the start of the large intestine. The appendix isnt very important.
Rectum
The rectum is at the lower part of the large intestine, where faeces are stored before they are exit the body.
Anus
The opening at the end of the digestive system from which faeces exit the body

Excretory System