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September 3rd 2011 Glogster

25/7/11 Summaries

  1. Explain the relationship between cells, tissues, organs and systems. Most living organisms (especially large ones) are made of many cells (multicellular organisms).
    cells within the organism, are then specifically organised into tissues, there are many types of tissues including muscular tissue and nervous tissue. These tissues are then categorised further into organs that carry out major operations in the organism, these include; the heart, the liver and kidneys (2). Next, scientifically, the organs are grouped together to form an organ system to carry out essential operations in the organism, such as the circulatory system and the respiratory system in charge of blood circulation and respiration.
  2. State, with examples that organs are a group of tissues that coordinate to do a specific job. Organs such as the lungs and the liver perform major roles in the body, however they cannot perform their assigned roles in the body solely alone, they need at least one more organ working in harmony with them to continue running the body's function(s).
    Some of these systems include:
    - The circulatory system, consisting of; heart, blood vessels and lungs.
    - The excretory system, consisting of; kidneys, skin, lungs, liver and large intestines.
    - The nervous system, consisting of; brain, spinal chord and nerves.
    These all use multiple organs to function, just as all other body systems do so too.

Terminology list

  • respiratory: a system in the body which regulates breathing
  • lungs: a major human and mammal organ
  • bronchioles: a system in the body that regulates digestion of foodstuff
  • circulatory: a system in the body that regulates the air in the body
  • reproductive: a system in the body which allows the species to reproduce offspring
  • lymphatic: containing a lymph in the body
  • urinary: a system in the body which allows it to get rid of liquid waste
  • cardiovascular: transports nutrients, gasses and chemical wastes
  • skeletal: provides protection for organs and support for body
  • muscular: moves bones that move the rest of the body and protects organs
  • endocrine: secretes hormones that control bodily functions
  • integumentary: first line of defence against infections; maintains body temperature
  • oesophagus: a muscular passage connecting the mouth with the stomach
  • hair
  • skin
  • nails
  • spleen: a highly vascular organ situated in human at the cardia end of stomach
  • ovary: female reproductive organ
  • Testes: Male reproductive organ

16/8/11 The Systems!
  • The skeletal system
The skeletal system is made of bones, cartilage, joints and ligaments.

  • The muscular system
The muscular system is all of the muscles in the human body working together.

  • The digestive system
The digestive system allows us to eat and process our food, then extract nutrients from it.
  • The respiratory system
  • The circulatory system
The respiratory and the organs in it are responsible for incorporating air into the blood.
The circulatory system is the organs that allow blood to "circulate" around our bodies.

  • The lymphatic system
Lymphs are clear tubes full of water like substance carrying nutrients that circulate blood.

  • The urinary system
The urinary system consists of the kidneys, the ureters, the urethra and the bladder. This system helps rid of the urine that is made when liquids are drunk.

  • The reproductive system
The reproductive systems of male and females are different. They are what helps human reproduce and keep the human race from dying out.

  • The endocrine system
The endocrine glands regulate, reproduction, growth and the way the body uses and distributes the food.

  • The nervous system
The nervous system is made of final channels which send brain signals and allow us to think about what we do. Without the nervous system, humans would be immobile and would not be able to survive.

28/7/11 Oxgen, Carbon Dioxide and Lungs: The Respiratory System


Summary of the Respiratory System (Study notes)

  • Respiration is how air is obtained by the body and incorporated into the bodies of all mammals
  • The air is inhaled through nasal and oral cavities
  • This then flows and is sucked down the pharynx (the hole behind the nose and the mouth) and also the larynx (the voice box)
  • The oxygen that is inhaled travels through the trachea (the windpipe)
  • It next branches into the bronchus; two large tubes, one leading to each lung
  • The bronchus branch into even finer vessels named bronchioles; there are many branching of into both lungs
  • The bronchioles finally meet alveolus, otherwise and more informally known as the air sacs

Air Exchange In the Lungs (Study Notes)

  • The alveolus play an important part in the lungs and the respiratory system as the physical gas exchange of oxygen and CO2 occur inside the small clusters.
  • Each and every cluster, or a single air sac (alveolus) is surrounded by very fine blood vessels
  • Carbon dioxide, which is considered waste, then enters the alveolus and leaves back through the bronchioles, bronchus and so forth until it is exhaled and out of the body system
  • On the other hand, clean oxygen is inhaled and diffuses through the walls of the fine blood cells and makes for the heart which then distributes the blood to arteries to finer vessels and so forth to the rest of the body, so that a fresh supply of oxygen in always available.

Air Exchange In the Lungs (Video)
(By Yasmin Sassine {Group Task})


2/8/11 Cellular Respiration
Cellular respiration happens when certain chemicals and oxygen cross paths. This includes glucose turning into and being used as energy for our cells, tissues, organs and body systems. This process only happens in the presence of water and food.


3/8/11 The Circulatory System and Blood's Components


Arteries to Capillaries and back through Veins!Arteries

  • Arteries are large vessels
  • They lead from the heart to the rest of the body
  • They carry blood that is full of oxygen
  • They split into finer vessels as they reach the further parts of the body which need less blood
  • Arteries thin enough to branch into capillaries

  • Capillaries are super-fine vessels
  • They are in fact so thin, delicate and fine that blood can diffuse through them and get to the body part that needs the blood
  • The capillaries are vital
  • They slowly grow larger as the near the heart
  • They get thick enough and begin to form veins

  • Veins carry blood
  • However they carry blood that the oxygen of has been used to fuel the body
  • The veins gradually thicken as they near the heart
  • Veins finally reach the lungs where they thin into capillaries once again and circulate in the alveolus and the carbon dioxide is filtered out of them

Blood And Its Parts

  • Blood carries nutrients and food to the rest of our body
  • Without blood the body would not be able to function and maintain itself from moment we are made
  • Within blood in the form of a relatively dense, red liquid there are many components and different types if cell, all of which perform an essential job:
  • Red Blood Cells: The red blood cells carry oxygen around the body, they also carry carbon dioxide which is then eliminated. The red blood cells consist of mainly Haemoglobin, but there are also other chemical, particularly enzymes that red blood cells also harbour.

  • White Blood Cells: The white blood cells have a very important job and that is to protect the body from germs that may invade the body and to fight of infections. They contain special antibodies that allow them to destroy and fight of the invading bacteria, virus or disease.


  • Platelets: Platelets contain the clotting factor of the blood. Without platelets, when a cut or a even minor bruise is cause the tissues will bleed until you eventually run out of blood, however, platelets rush to the area of the injury and begin to distribute themselves and clot the blood so that no more will seep from the wound.

  • Plasma: Plasma is a straw coloured liquid the the other blood cells are contained in. The main function of the plasma is to provide nutrients, but to also help fight infection. Plasma is mostly made of water.


7/8/11 Artificial Parts in The Circulatory SystemToday in the modern world, we are able to make many artificial human body parts to help those who lack them, or for those whose own does not function well. These may include prosthetic limbs, but in the circulatory system alone there are 3 different types of artificial parts that are put into use.These include:
  • Artificial Human Heart:
This is a machine, immaculately designed to circulate blood and pump it as well as receive it. These are all things that a real heart can do as well. However, like any machine the part needs to get its energy from a source or sources, especially if it is going to be working around the clock. The heart comes with two batteries, the internal battery that is inside the abdomen and stuck to the wall of it, the other, external battery is attached to the patient by a wire and can be clasped onto the wearer's clothing. However this invention is not entirely complete as the longest a patient has been able to survive with one is only 512. Scientist continue to work on improving the artificial heart even today.
Made of titanium and plastic
The internal and external batteries.

  • Artificial Blood
Artificial blood exists however, it is not very accurate and does not as yet come with any guarantees. Artificial blood must meet three different criteria to be both effective and efficient in helping the patient. Firstly it needs to have a long shelf life. Secondly it must not need refrigeration and thirdly the blood must not need to match the patient's blood type, so that it can be transfused to anyone. There is currently a type called Hemopure, it is yet to be perfected and is not legal in Australia, however in some South African hospitals. Hemopure has all three aspects that it needs to, however it has in the past caused and transfused some diseases as it is based on human blood like all artificial blood would be. These side effects included HIV/AIDS.

  • Artificial Heart Valve
These valves are inserted instead of the original heart valve of the patient which is faulty. There are two types of valves that are artificial; the mechanical heart valve and the biological heart valve. The first is made of metal parts and a flap is placed in the centre, the flap can easily rotate and move about. The second is usually made of pig heart tissue these are usually more reliable, because they are less likely to clot, however they need to be replaced every fifteen years.


12/8/11 The Digestive System

  • The food begins by being chewed
  • It travels down the pharynx and then oesophagus
  • This leads to the stomach where its broken down to smaller pieces
  • Soon the food enters the small intestines and goes through the duodenum, jejunum and the ileum
  • The food that isn't absorbed and made into energy travels further and enters the large intestine
  • Here more water and vitamins are absorbed from it
  • The waste turns to faeces and leaves the body through the rectum at the act of excretion.

12/8/11 Urinary System (The excretory system)


  • The urinary system is a very basic, but amazing way that our bodies get rid of unwanted fluid in the bloodstream
  • The kidneys filter the blood and produce urine
  • The urine travel down the ureters
  • Then into the bladder
  • And finally the body gets rid of them through the urethras
  • This happens during the act of urination

16/8/11 Foods And Their Nutrients
Proteins can be derived from many things, and this is exceptionally good as proteins are much needed parts of the human diet. Proteins provide stronger and more enduring muscles. This is why most athletes are on high protein diets. Proteins are usually found in the following foods:
  • Beef
  • Eggs
  • Salmon
Carbs are an extremely good source of energy. Even a little carb can by very useful as it contains glucose and that is main ingredient for energy in a healthy body. Some carbohydrates include:
  • Bread
  • Pasta
  • Rice
Whilst at a first glance fats may not seem to be all that good for our bodies, they are in some way some of the most essential types of food that human need to inquire daily. Fats become stored energy and a healthy amount is needed for humans to survive. Fats include:
  • Butter
  • Olive oil
  • Peanuts

16/8/11 The Skeletal SystemThe skeletal system has three main purposes.
  1. Enable us to move, because muscles are able to cling to bones and join to help us move about
  2. Provide protection for out internal organs
  3. Provide us with vital minerals