Science-Biology by Selly G

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How Air Enters And Exits The Lungs:
25 July 2011-

  1. Explain the relationship between cells, tissues, organs and systems.

A cell is a single unit of organism. when many cells form together, tissues are formed. When tissues come together, organs are formed, and when organs work with other parts in our body, a system is formed.

2.State, with examples that organs are a group of tissues that coordinate to do a specific job.

Organs are a group of tissues that perform a particular job together building a system, including the heart, brain, eye, liver, and lung.

3.Identify a variety of organ systems in animals and recall that they are made up of.

Animals' bodies are made up of various body systems, groups of organs that work together to perform a function. These body systems include:Circulatory system - transports blood throughout an animal's body and consists of blood, arteries, veins, and capillaries.
Respiratory system – consists of an animal's nose, lungs, and trachea. Oxygen into the animal and releases waste carbon dioxide back into the air.

Trachea, Bronchioles, Lungs, Mouth:takes in oxygen & removes carbon dioxide & water
pituitary gland, adrenal glands, thymus gland, thyroid gland, ovary, testes:secretes hormones that control bodily functions
Esophagus, Stomach, Intestines:absorbs and breaks down food, into the circulatory system
Nodes, Tonsils, Spleen:indicate the presence of infection
Brain, Nerves:Co-ordinates the function of the body
Heart, blood vessels:transports blood, nutrients, gases & chemical fluids around the body
skin, hair & nails: Defence and to maintain temperature
uterus, fallopian tubes, testes, vas deferens: reproduction
ureters, urethra, bladder: Excrete waste from the body.
cartilage, bones, joints: Gives support and protection

The process that occurs inside an alveolus:
The alveolus where gas exchange takes place. In the alveolus oxygen is diffused from the air and into the blood, while carbon dioxide is
diffused in the opposite direction.

external image alveolus.png
Study Notes:(Respiratory System)

  • The energy travel through capillaries to bring the energy to the whole body.
  • When you breathe in, your diaphragm contracts and moves downwards. This increases the space in your chest cavity. Which then your lungs expands.
  • Air is sucked in through your mouth and nose, then travels down your wind pipe and into your lungs. Right after passing through your bronchi tube, then the air reaches then enters air sacs called alveoli.
  • When the oxygen filled blood cells go through your body, carbon dioxide filled blood cells then travels back and out your mouth

Study Notes:(Circulatory System)

glucose + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water =ENERGY
  • The blood brings oxygen from the lungs and nutrients and minerals from the digestive system, to all the cells in the body.
  • The blood also removes wastes such as water and toxins which are disposed through the kidney.
  • The tiny Biconcave RBCs contain haemoglobin that attaches oxygen to be carried around the body.
  • The larger WBCs fight disease by engulfing germs. Some WBCs produce antibodies that attack germs
  • arteries:carry blood under high pressure away from the heart
  • veins: Prevent the blood flowing backwards
  • capillaries: carry materials such as oxygen and nutrients to the cells and remove wastes including carbon dioxide and water
  • heart:muscular organ that pumps blood in the body
  • blood: carry nutrients such as glucose and some waste products and oxygen.

  • The main components of:
  • blood: carry nutrients such as glucose, oxygen, fight diseases, cloth cuts.
  • plasma: liquid part of blood which consist of mostlyw ater, many substances dissolve in the plasma.
  • red blood cells: carry oxygen around the body.
  • white blood cells: fight diseases and seals up cuts so germs

Notes(Urinary System):
  • kidneys: two bean-shaped organs that filter waste from the blood and produce urine
  • ureters: two thin tubes that take pee from the kidney to the bladder
  • bladder: a sac that holds your urine until it is let out
  • urethra: the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body when you pee

Food Sources
  • Build and repair cells and fight infection and heal cuts also acts as antibodies, enzymes, and hormones
  • Meat, fish, chicken
  • nuts
  • Eggs, milk, cheese
  • supplies energy and fiber to help food move through the digestive tract
  • Breads, cereals
  • Rice, pasta
  • Fruits, vegetables
  • Supply concentrated energy and carries vitamins throughout the body
  • Butter, margarine, oils
  • Nuts and seeds
  • Fried foods
external image Bodyparts.jpg



Skeletal System
Skeletal System

external image digest.jpg
external image Illu_urinary_system.jpg

: Science homework (excretory system) by Misa_Danielle

Like it? Create your own at .: Science Homework Skeletal System by Misa_Danielle

Like it? Create your own at . <- This link is for the Skeletal system. 16/8/2011 <-This link is for the Excretory system. 7/8/2011
Notes:(The Digestive System)~
The mouth is the beginning of the digestive tract, digestion starts when you take the first bite of food. By chewing, this breaks the food into smaller pieces that are easier digested, while saliva mixes the food to begin the process of breaking it down into a different form so that your body can absorb and use.
The esophagus is located in your throat near your windpipe, also known as the trachea, the esophagus receives food from your mouth when you swallow, then the esophagus delivers food to your stomach.
The stomach is a hollow organ that holds food while it is being mixed with enzymes that continue the process of breaking down food. The cells in the lining of the stomach give out a strong acid and the enzymes are responsible for the process of breaking down the food, when this process is done, the broken down food are released into the small intestine.
Small intestine
The small intestine is made up of three sgments, the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The small intestine is a long muscular tube that breaks down the food further more by using enzymes released by the pancreas from the liver. The duodenum is most responsible for the continuous breaking-down process, with the jejunum and ileum mainly responsible for absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream.
The pancreas generates and separates digestive enzymes into the duodenum, which is the first segment of the small intestine. The enzymes break down protein, fats, and carbohydrates, secreting it directly into the bloodstream.
The liver has multiple functions, but its main function within the digestive system is to process the nutrients absorbed from the small intestine. Bile from the liver secreted into the small intestine digests fat. It takes the raw substances absorbed by the intestine and makes all the various chemicals the body needs to function.
The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile. It then releases it into the duodenum to help absorb and digest fats.
Large Intestine
The large intestine is a longer muscular tube, compared to the small intestine. It connects to the small intestine to the rectum. The large intestine is made up of the cecum, the ascending colon, the transverse colon, the descending colon, and the sigmoid colon, which connects to the rectum. Stool or waste left overs from the digestive process, is passed through the colon by means of peristalsis, first in a liquid state and ultimately in a solid form. It normally takes about 36 hours for stool to get through the colon.
The rectum is a chamber that connects the colon to the anus. It's job is to receive stool from the colon, and to holds the stool until evacuation happens.
The anus is the last part of the digestive system. It is a canal consisting of the pelvic floor muscles and the two anal sphincters. The lining of the upper anus is specialized to detect substances. It lets you know whether the contents are liquid, gas, or solid. The muscles creates a block-like wall to stop stool from coming up. Science-Biology by Selly G

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